In English we create adjectives from verb like e.g. speaking doll, moving chair, spoken word, defeated nation. The words “speaking”,”spoken”,”defeated” etc. are adjectives created from verbs “To Speak”, “To Defeat” etc.

 

In Marathi also we create such adjectives.

1) Adjectives indicating general behaviour 

e.g. Speaking tree, dancing doll etc.

 

In Marathi such adjectives are created by suffixing form of “णारा” to verb.

e.g. speaking :- बोल (bol) + णारा (NArA) -> बोलणारा  (bolaNArA) 

Laughing :- हस (has) + णारा  (NArA) -> हसणारा  ( hasaNArA  )

 

As we have seen before, the adjectives ending with vowel आ(A) change as per gender and multiplicity of noun, and it is changes using  “आ-ई-ए-ए-या-ई (A-I-e-e-yA-I) rule” (http://kaushiklele-learnmarathi.blogspot.in/2012/06/i-e-e-ya-i-rule.html )

Examples in below table 

 

                             Singular

                       Plural

 

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

English word

 (A)

णारा(NArA)

 (I)

णारी (NArI)

 (e)

णारे (NAre)

 (e)

णारे (NAre)

या(yA)

णाऱ्या (NAryA)

 (I)

णारी (NArI)

speaking

बोलणारा

bolaNArA

बोलणारी

bolaNArI

बोलणारे

bolaNAre

बोलणारे

bolaNAre

बोलणाऱ्या

bolaNAryA

बोलणारी

bolaNArI

Laughing

हसणाराhasaNArA

हसणारी

hasaNArI

हसणारे

hasaNAre

हसणारे

hasaNAre

हसणाऱ्या

hasaNAryA

हसणारी

hasaNArI

Moving

हलणारा

halaNArA

हलणारी

halaNArI

हलणारे

halaNAre

हलणारे

halaNAre

हलणाऱ्या

halaNAryA

हलणारी

halaNArI

 

2) Adjectives indicating completed action

e.g. Spoken word, finished meal etc.

 

In Marathi such adjectives are created by suffixing form of “लेला” to verb.

e.g. Spoken:- बोल (bol) + लेला(lelA) -> बोललेला ( bolalelA )

Laughed :- हस (has) + लेला(lelA) -> हसलेला ( hasalelA )


These forms are appended to past tense word of that verb.

e.g. for verb बघणे(baghaNe ) the suffixes are appended to बघित(baghit) etc.

 

As we have seen before, the adjectives ending with vowel आ(A) change as per gender and multiplicity of noun, and it is changes using  “आ-ई-ए-ए-या-ई (A-I-e-e-yA-I) rule” (http://kaushiklele-learnmarathi.blogspot.in/2012/06/i-e-e-ya-i-rule.html )

Examples in below table 

 

                             Singular

                       Plural

 

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

English word

 (A)

लेला (lelA)

 (I)

लेली (lelI)

 (e)

लेले (lele)

 (e)

लेले (lele)

या(yA)

लेल्या (lelyA)

 (I)

लेली (lelI)

spoken

बोललेला

bolalelA

बोललेली 

bolalelI

बोललेले 

bolalele

बोललेले 

bolalele

बोललेल्या

bolalelyA

बोललेली 

bolalelI

Laughed

हसलेला 

hasalelA

हसलेली 

hasalelI

हसलेले 

hasalele

हसलेले 

hasalele

हसलेल्या 

hasalelyA

हसलेली 

hasalelI

Moved

हललेला 

halalelA

हललेली 

halalelI

हललेले 

halalele

हललेले 

halalele

हललेल्या 

halalelyA

हललेली 

halalelI

Seen

बघितलेला

baghitalelA

बघितलेली

baghitalelI

बघितलेले

baghitalele

बघितलेले

baghitalele

बघितलेल्या

baghitalelyA

बघितलेली baghitalelI


3) Adjectives indicating ongoing action  

Third way of using verb can not be classified as adjective in English but in Marathi it is.

e.g. The boy who is giving speech is my brother.

That person who is dancing is mad.


So these group of word viz. “who is dancing/giving” can be thought as adjective. This adjective indicate that activity is going on at given moment. So in Marathi we will use present continuous tense and use form of “णारा”(NArA) or लेला (lelA) to create adjective. 

 

i.e.verb + त(t)  followed by form of असलेला/असणारा as per gender and multiplicity.

 

e.g.

The boy who is giving -> देत असलेला मुलगा ( det asalelA mulagA )    OR

                                      देत असणारा मुलगा (det asaNArA mulagA )


That person who is dancing -> नाचत असलेली व्यक्ती ( nAchat asalelI vyaktI ) OR

                                              नाचत असणारी व्यक्ती (nAchat asaNArI vyaktI )

 

As you would have guessed that as per  आ-ई-ए-ए-या-ई (A-I-e-e-yA-I) rulethe form of will be असलेला/असणारा

असणारा-असणारी-असणारे-असणारे-असणाऱ्या-असणारी (asaNArA-asaNArI-asaNAre-asaNAre-asaNAryA-asaNArI )

or

असलेला-असलेली-असलेले-असलेले-असलेल्या-असलेली (asalelA-asalelI-asalele-asalele-asalelyA-asalelI)


Even if you are talking about activity which was going on in past or future, you will use same pattern.

The boy who was giving money was my brother -> पैसे देत असलेला मुलगा माझा भाऊ होता (paise det asalelA mulagA mAjhA bhAU hotA)

Nation that will be doing progress will be successful -> प्रगती करत असलेली राष्ट्रे महान होतील (pragatI karat asalelI rAShTre mahAn hotIl)

 

Note that in day-to-day conversation instead of saying “नाचत असलेली व्यक्ती” a native speaker will tend to use shorter adjective i.e. “नाचणारी”. So the context of the speech will convey appropriate meaning.




Listen examples in this lesson at

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lTfPSr3qN3c

 



 

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