Basic questions

Consider sentences :
Do you go?
Did he go?
Will she speak?
Was he dancing?

These are all basic questions in English. In Marathi basic questions can be formed by adding का (kA). i.e. by appending का (kA) to a statement it will be converted to question.

He goes -> Does he go
तो जातो (to jAto) -> तो जातो का? ( to jAto kA ?)

She went -> did she go?
ती गेली (tI gelI ) -> ती गेली का ? (tI gelI kA)

They will go -> will they go?
ते जातील (te jAtIl) -> ते जातील का ? (te jAtIl kA)

Such questions can also be asked by using the same sentence but just changing the tone. In English as well we do it some times.
e.g You are coming -> You coming ??
तू येतो आहेस (tU yeto Ahes )

You told him secret –> You told him secret ??
तू त्याला रहस्य सांगितलेस (tU tyAlA rahasy sAMgitales )

WH Questions

Refer table below for words in Marathi for Wh questions

Wh question in English Word in Marathiसामान्यरूप(sAmAnyarUp) of WH-word
Whoकोण(koN)कोणा(koNA)
Whenकधी/ केव्हा(kadhI / kevhA)
कधी/केव्हा(kadhI/kevhA
Whereकुठे(kuThe)कुठ(kuTha)
Whyका(kA)
-
Whatकाय(kAy)
कशा(kashA)
How many
किती(kitI)कितीं(kitIM)
How
कसा कशी कसे
कसे कश्या कशी
(kasA kashI kase
kase kashyA kashI)
-
Which
कुठला कुठली कुठले
कुठले कुठल्या कुठली
(kuThalA kuThalI kuThale
kuThale kuThalyA kuThalI)
कुठल्या(kuThalyA)
Whichकोणता कोणती कोणते
कोणते कोणत्या कोणती
(koNatA koNatI koNate
koNate koNatyA koNatI)
कोणत्या(koNatyA)

In the above table “Who”; “When”; “Where”; “Why”; “What”; “How many” seems simple as there is only one word in Marathi corresponding to each. So let us first attack “How” and “which”

As we had seen in last section “My/His/Her” that depending on gender and multiplicity the form changes. The same logic applies here.
Depending on the gender and multiplicity of the objective of question the form is decided.
e.g. “How is he ?” Here objective is “he” i.e. masculine-singular. So कसा will be used.
“How are they (plural of he)” Here the objective is “They (plural of he)” i.e. masculine-plural So कसे will be used
“How are those girls?” Here objective is “Those” i.e. feminine-plural So कश्या will be used

Similarly for “which” depending on the gender and multiplicity objective of question the form is decided. Also for “which” there are two options. Form of कुठला and forms of कोणता. Either of them can be used invariably.
e.g.
“Which boy” Here the objective is “boy” i.e. masculine-singular. So कुठला/ कोणता will be used.
“which trees” Here the objective is “trees” i.e. neuter-plural. So कुठली / कोणती will be used.

Let us take the full-sentence example.

General structure is:

Subject/Doer of action       question word         verb

Examples for other WH questions:

When will you come ? –> तू कधी/केव्हा येशील ? (tU kadhI/kevhA yeshIl ? )
Where do you live ? –> तू कुठे राहतोस ? ( tU kuThe rAhatos ? )
Why did you speak ? –> तू का बोललास ? ( tU kA bolalAs ? )
What is your name ?–> तुझे नाव काय ? ( tujhe nAv kAy ? )
How many girls spoke ? –> किती मुली बोलल्या ? (kitI mulI bolalyA ? )

Prepositions with WH-questions

Prepositions can be used with WH-question words. And like nouns, before adding preposition is added to सामान्यरूप(sAmAnyarUp) of WH-word. Propositions are not logically used with “How” , “why” related words.
सामान्यरूप(sAmAnyarUp) of काय(kAy) is quite different.

Examples :

Because of whom -> कोणामुळे (koNAmuLe )
From when -> कधीपासून (kadhIpAsUn)
For what -> कशासाठी (kashAsAThI )
After what -> कशानंतर (kashAnaMtar)
For which boy -> कुठल्या मुलासाठी (kuThalyA mulAsAThI )

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Basic Questions

WH Questions