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Learn Marathi From English

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Lessons 113
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Hello friends, welcome to my website to Learn Marathi through English.

Here I am trying to introduce you the fundamentals of Marathi through English. But at some places I have taken help of examples from Hindi.

Hindi and Marathi both follow same script i.e. Devanagari. Pronunciation of letters is same. So those who can read-write Hindi, for them reading Marathi is easy. They will save their time learning pronunciation.

So if you know Hindi, this journey to learn Marathi will be comparatively easy.

But those who do not know Hindi need not feel upset, but they just need to put little more effort learning script and pronunciation.

My own experience says that reading the language from its own script helps a lot. So learn Devanagari script first. So learning Marathi will be easier if you read it directly from Devanagari instead of Romanized.

For most of the examples transliteration is given in Roman script is as well. This is for convenience of search-ability on internet.

Conventions for writing Marathi/Hindi in Roman is given here

http://kaushiklele-learnmarathi.blogspot.com/2012/05/vowels-consonants-in-marathi-and-their.html

and

http://kaushiklele-learnmarathi.blogspot.com/2012/05/marathi-barakahadi-symbols-for-vowels.html

While learning language, the student is very excited and he want to speak the full sentences as early as possible. He wants to be able to communicate from day 1. Obviously it will not be possible, because you have just used few words !! you can not communicate everything from these few words. Realization of this fact de-motivates the student.  So many language learning programs shower the student with list of full sentences. This looks good first, but it does not teach how to prepare sentence. So thou you know 100 sentences, you are helpless to create 101st sentence yourself.

Here comes the necessity of learning grammar.

Students think that learning grammar is very tedious. And try to run away from it. Spoon feeding i.e. list of pre-created sentences will just keep u handicapped. So learn grammar, stand on your own feet and enjoy the journey.

So I have decided to keep fine balance between “ready made sentences” and grammar. So by speaking ready-made-full sentences you can keep alive you excitement. And by grammar you will nurture your foundation.

You can master the pronunciation of Marathi by watching around 150 audio-video clips at my YouTube channel.

YouTube Channel name :- Learn Marathi with Kaushik Lele

https://www.youtube.com/c/KaushikLele_Learn_Marathi

So friends let us start the journey. Welcome to the world of Marathi. The language having history of around 1000 years, rich with its literature, philosophy, widespread influence in society.

Welcome !!!

Lessons
  • Hello friends, welcome to my website “Learn Marathi through English-Hindi”. Here I am trying to introduce you the fundamentals of Marathi through English. But at some places I have taken help of examples from Hindi. Hindi and Marathi both follow same script i.e. Devanagari. Pronunciation of letters is same. So those who can read-write Hindi, [...]
  • Matthew Chang is Chinese-American youngster who has very successfully learned Marathi language.  His success is praise worthy considering – he has no Marathi or even Indian family background, he is very far from Marathi land, there are not many people around him to talk Marathi, limited online resources available (e.g. dictionaries and auto-translation), it was [...]
  • Tips to Learn Marathi  Many users of this blog asked me about tips to Learn Marathi fast. So I would like to share my thoughts about it. These are the things which I followed when I learnt Tamil and Gujarati myself. I learnt basics of these language through book and then developed myself without anybody’s [...]
  • Let’s start learning Alphabets in Marathi Vowels in Marathi script are :-  अ आ इ ई उ ऊ ए ऐ ओ औ अं अः Consonants in Marathi script are :-  क ख ग घ घ च छ ज झ ञ ट ठ ड ढ ण त थ द ध न प फ ब भ म य र ल [...]
  • In this lesson we will learn pronunciation of alphabets in Marathi   Friends, In the beginning we will write Marathi in English script. So as to enable you to read it, we will decide some conventions for it.  Note that in some cases there is some difference in pronunciation when capital letter is used in stead [...]
  • In previous lesson we have studied symbols in Devanagari script for consonants and vowels. Now lets learn next concept of Marathi Barakhadi. Like in any language, vowels can be added to consonants to create combined sound. In English we just right letters one after other; and based on the word pronunciation say them together. e.g. meat ; [...]
  • Exaplanation for “अनुस्वार”  (anusvAr) :- In table for vowels there is row :- अं aM As sound of “um” in number, sound of “um” as in jum This will need more attention to understand its pronunciation. The dot given on the character is called “अनुस्वार” (anusvAr)   The anusvaar (अनुस्वार ) is a nasal sound. The अनुस्वार  itself does not [...]
  • In previous chapters we have learned pronunciation of Marathi alphabets. In this lesson let’s learn combining consonants in Marathi.   Like in any language, two or more consonants can be combined and pronounced together. e.g. In English word “fact” consonants “c” and “t” and pronounced together  In English word “Alp” consonants “l” and “p” and pronounced together  In [...]
  • In previous chapter we started learning Marathi jodakshar i.e combining consonants in Marathi. This chapter focuses on Combining consonants with र(r) When consonants are combined with र(r) it is indicated by different symbols:-  Style 1) Giving curve above consonant.   Consider English words “part”,”harp”,”mark” etc. In all these words sound of “r” is half. So transliterating these words in [...]
  •  In previous chapter we started learning Marathi jodakshar i.e combining consonants in Marathi. This chapter focuses on Combining consonants with ह(h)   ह(h) is a consonant which is not generally added with other consonants. I mean, there are very few words in which ह(h) is first consonant and so to be pronounced half.   We can denote half sound of ह(h) [...]
  • Traditionally few combined consonants have separate symbol. Probably a little shorter version helpful while writing manually. In computer fonts it is not possible to write them. So refer below image.   You can write all these symbols with the rules/styles discussed in previous sections.  i.e.   क + त = क्त द + य = [...]
  • Let us learn Marathi pronouns today. Below chart has the list. As I would always say, go through the list once. But do not get daunted by the details. When we will start preparing sentence, come back to chart and get the required pronoun. Using them frequently will make you familiar. And afterwards you will not need [...]
  • While learning Marathi it is important to understand the customs or traditions of Marathi community which get reflected in language. One important aspect to learn is how elders are addressed in Marathi.   In Marathi, plurals are used to indicate respect. This is called आदरार्थी बहुवचन (AdarArthI bahuvachan ) e.g. If you are talking about prime [...]
  • Friends, let us move a step ahead towards in learning sentence formation in Marathi, today. We will talk about verbs in Marathi. In English some verbs are  :- to go; to come; to speak; to sit; to eat etc. In Marathi some verbs are येणे(yeNe), जाणे(jANe), बोलणे (bolaNe), बसणे(basaNe), खाणे(khaaNe) etc.   While using verb in English sentence we strip “to” out [...]
  • Today we will finally reach to sentence formation. Let us learn Simple Present Tense in Marathi.   In English a boy will say “I go” In Marathi he will say मी जातो (mI jAto) As we have seen before the verb “Go” is जा(jA) in Marathi. So for Simple present tense we suffixed  तो(to) to verb. Simple !! जा (jA)+ तो(to)  [...]
  • Let’s learn basic Marathi sentence formation in this lesson. In English the verb “To Be” has special significance. Its’ different forms are used along with other verb to indicate tense. Same is the case in Marathi. “To Be” in English is असणे(“asaNe”) in Marathi. In English “am”, ”are”, ”is” are different forms of “To be” for different pronouns.  Similarly in Marathi there are different forms of असणे(“asaNe”)   Below chart [...]
  • After Learning Simple Present Tense of “To be” in Marathi it is easy to march toward learning Present Continuous tense (PCT) in Marathi.   In English PCT sentence is formed as follows :- “Pronoun”                    “form of To be”  “Verb+-ing” I  am                    doing   Similarly in Marathi PCT sentence is formed as follows :- “Pronoun”    “form of verb [...]
  • Future Tense Similar to Simple present tense, the Simple future tense also has same sentence structure Pronoun followed by verb+suffix.   Example 1) For I(male/female) the suffix is एन (en) So for verb चाल(chAl) the future tense will be  चाल(chAl) +  एन (en)= चालेन (chAlen ) The full sentence “I will walk” –> मी चालेन (mI chAlen )   Example 2) For “We” the suffix is ऊ (U) So for [...]
  • Friends, you have learnt Simple Future tense of “to Be” i.e. असणे(“asaNe”). So you have almost done with Future Continuous Tense. The sentence structure in Future Continuous Tense is :- Pronoun                   Verb+त (t)              Form of असणे(“asaNe”) in Simple Future मी ( mI )                   चाल(chAl)+त (t)      असेन ( asen ) Example 1) For I(male/female) Form of असणे(“asaNe”) in Simple Future Is असेन ( asen ). The full sentence I will be [...]
  •   Friends, for learning past tense you need to put extra attention. Because, Past tense has comparatively different structure than other Tense.  Also there are multiple exceptions to common rules. So be more attentive.   Let us start. In Simple Present , Continuous Present, Simple Future and Continuous future tense; the verb is formed depending [...]
  •   We learnt the simple past tense for verbs without noun/objective. Now let us learn other type. RULE FOR FORMING VERB :-  Verb is formed as per gender and singular/Plural of objective.   Example 1) Consider past tense example “I read letter”. Here letter is noun/objective. So in Marathi the verb “read” i.e “वाच (vAch) will be formed according to “letter” Letter [...]
  •   Simple Past tense of “to be” Below table shows the forms of “to be” i.e. असणे(“asaNe”) in Marathi in Simple Past Tense Pronoun in English Pronoun in Marathi Form of असणे(“asaNe”) in Marathi in Simple Past Tense Transliteration I (male) मी होतो hoto I (female) मी होते hote we आम्ही होतो hoto we ( listener [...]
  • By now we have studied many grammar concepts including tense. We have seen the forms of verb in simple past tense is base of perfect tenses and other phrases. We have also observed that few verbs behave differently when their past tense form is created.   As per rule we append लो(lo) to verb to create [...]
  • In the sentences we had seen so far the object in the sentence i.e. नाम was mostly inanimate objects. like box, mango, pen etc. What if the the object i.e. नाम was a person a living thing. There is little difference in way such sentences are formed.  e.g. First consider sentences with non-living things I see dog [...]
  • My/His/Her etc.   To represent the ownership we use My/His/Her etc. In English these forms are gender neutral e.g  My son. My daughter. My table. For all the three cases we used “My”. But in Marathi, depending on the gender of the objective form changes.   e.g. For “My” in English, there are 3 forms in Marahti viz. माझा (mAjhA [...]
  • Basic questions :-   Consider sentences  :- Do you go ? Did he go ? Will she speak ? Was he dancing ?   These are all basic questions in English. In Marathi basic questions can be formed by adding का (kA). i.e. by appending का (kA) to an statement it will be converted to question.   He goes -> [...]
  •  “नाही “(nAhI) is the word used for negation in Marathi. Simple present tense   The sentence structure is Subjective/Doer    verb+त(t)    नाही (nAhI)/नाहीस(nAhIs)/नाहीत nAhIt Selection of “नाही “/“नाहीस” /“नाहीत” depends on pronoun. Below table list Pronoun in English Pronoun in Marathi Form of “नाही “ (nAhI)/ I मी “नाही “ (nAhI)/ we आम्ही we ( listenr including) आपण You (plural) तुम्ही He / That [...]
  • Simple Past Tense You already know how to create positive sentence in Simple past tense Just add “नाही “(nAhI)/ नाहीस (nAhIs ) / नाहीत (nAhIt ) at the end of sentence to make it negative. The form of “नाही “(nAhI) is decided as per subjective/doer of action.   Pronoun in English Pronoun in Marathi Form of “नाही “ (nAhI)/ I मी “नाही “ (nAhI)/ [...]
  • Simple Future Tense:-   Negative sentence structure is Subjective/doer         verb+णार (NAr)     नाही(nAhI) /नाहीस (nAhIs)/नाहीत (nAhIt ) मी                            बोलणार            नाही नाहीस ( nAhIs) is used for You(singular) नाहीत (nAhIt ) is used for They/These For all other pronouns नाही(nAhI) is used. Examples :- I will not do          [...]
  • Till now we have worked on pronouns. Let us move towards other nouns and proper nouns. Major difference in English and Marathi is in determining gender and plural forms. In English generally non-living objects are considred neuter gender. But in Marathi even non-living objects can have masculine or feminine gender. e.g Mango i.e. आंबा (AMbA) is masculine. [...]
  • As we had seen that there is change in form of pronouns while adding preposition which is called सामान्य रूप (sAmAnya rUp) in Marathi .    Similarly there is change in nouns i.e. nouns also have सामान्य रूप (sAmAnya rUp) in Marathi.  It also depends on gender and multiplicity of noun. Below table summarizes it. If it the noun is [...]
  • In previous lessons we have learned about prepositions. Learn Prepositions in MarathiPreposition “TO” in Marathi Working with nouns – Prepositions in Marathi Prepositions with Verbs I observed that some learners face difficulty in selecting one of two prepositions when there is subtle difference in meaning of them. Some pronouns sound similar but they have different [...]
  • Though I have followed grammar based approach for Marathi teaching; I have purposely omitted explaining the concept of विभक्ति(vibhakti) and विभक्तिप्रत्यय(vibhaktipratyay).   I think it is very complicated to explain and a lot confusing. Because “विभक्तिप्रत्यय” table includes many suffixes which are not used in contemporary language.       I had read at one place that [...]
  • Commands   As we had seen in very beginning, just saying the verb is giving order to someone. When speaking with someone he is called with तुम्ही  (tumhI ) and verb is suffixed with आ ( A) Some verbs which are not ending with “अ”(a); suffixing “आ ( A) will create bit different form. See below examples of दे(de), पी (pI)   Command in [...]
  • Below table list words related to time :- English Marathi Today आज ( Aj  ) Tomorrow उद्या  (udyA) Yesterday काल ( kAl ) Day after yesterday परवा ( paravA ) Day before yesterday परवा ( paravA ) Morning सकाळ ( sakAL ) Afternoon दुपार ( dupAr  ) Evening संध्याकाळ ( saMdhyAkAL ) at Morning सकाळी ( sakALI ) at afternoon दुपारी ( dupArI ) [...]
  • Consider two sentences. 1) Toy moved  2) I moved toy The first sentence talks about action that was taken by toy. Second sentence says what caused that action. It was me ! In both the sentences we used verb “move”.  But in Marathi verb will change when you want to indicate cause of action.  e.g. [...]
  • आ-ई-ए-ए-या-ई  (A-I-e-e-yA-I) Rule :-  The title of this article looks strange. But as you will read it you will see that it is not strange rather you have already learnt it. Recall the article about adjectives. There we had said that if masculine-singular form of adjective ends with आ(A) then there will be different forms of adjective depending on gender [...]
  • We have long back learnt Past perfect tense. Today we will see another style of saying past perfect tense.  With the grammar learnt before, the sentence “I had spoken” will be translated as “मी बोललो होतो ( mI bolalo hoto ). In second style it can be said as मी बोललेलो ( mI bolalelo )  In this form [...]
  • In English we use “perfect continuous” tense to indicate that some action has started in the past and has continued up until now. e.g. “I have been studying Marathi for last 2 years”, “She has been working here for past 1 month”,”He had been standing all day at work” etc. Style 1)  In Marathi there is [...]
  • In English we use the phrase “used to” to indicate repetitive events. e.g. I used to go to morning walk when I was in school. He used to play bad before he got the coaching. Similar structure in Marathi is :- Subject      verb+suffix मी                 कर  + आयचो Pronoun in English Pronoun in Marathi suffix Transliteration I (male) [...]
  • In English we use “Question Tag” when we want confirmation from other person about some activity.   e.g. You will come to movie, won’t you ? She did not drink milk, did she ?   In Marathi also we have concept of “question tag”. But in Marathi we just add word “ना”(nA) to normal sentence [...]
  • We have seen positive and negative sentences in Simple future tense in previous lessons viz. http://learn-gujarati-from-english.blogspot.in/2013/11/simple-future-tense-in-gujarati.html http://learn-gujarati-from-english.blogspot.in/2013/11/negative-sentences-in-simple-future.html While reading Gujarati you can come across with other style of simple future tense. This style is seen whenever statements have two parts/clauses or future action depends on some condition. So without going into grammatical jargon, I have called [...]
  • The English verb “To Want” or “To need” in Marathi is “पाहिजे असणे (pAhije asaNe)/ हवे असणे (have asaNe).   Sentence formation is little different in Marathi. In English we say, “I want mango”. It can also be said as “Mango is wanted to me”. Marathi sentence structure is similar to second way.   Form of subject              object         पाहिजे/ [...]
  • To indicate that some action is mandatory we use “must”/“have to” phrase in English. e.g. “He has to complete it today” ; “you must follow rules” etc. In Marathi sentence formation is :- Form of noun/pronoun in form like “to me”,”to him” etc.   verb+ “आयला “ (AyalA) OR Verb+ form of “आवे” (Ave) as per object       [...]
  • In English there are three degrees of comparison viz. positive, comparative and superlative. Genrally we prefix “more” and “most” to adjective for comparative and superlative degree. Sometimes there are different words to indicate each degree e.g. good-better-best Bad-worse-worst  , tall- taller-tallest etc. In Marathi, we do not have this second way of comparison. i.e. adjectives [...]
  • At the outset let me clarify that there is no exact/one-to-one replacement of modal verb “would” in Marathi.   In English, “would” is used in different ways to indicate different shades of meaning. Depending on the type sentences are formed differently in Marathi.     Generally “would” is used in these type of sentences :-  [...]
  • In English we take permission by asking "May I come in" ,"May I use this" ? In Gujarati we can create such requests by using sentence in simple present tense or sentence with "to can" and just omitting form of હોવું(hovuM) and asking it in question tone Examples :- I come -> હું આવું છું (huM AvuM ChuM [...]

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