In the previous lesson, we have studied symbols in the Devanagari script for consonants and vowels. Now let’s learn the next concept of Marathi Barakhadi. Like in any language, vowels can be added to consonants to create combined sound.

In English we just right letters one after another; and based on the word pronunciation say them together.
e.g. meat; bit; hat.
Here “ea”, “i”, “a” are pronounced along with preceding consonant.

In Marathi, we do not write vowels as it is when they are to be combined with a consonant. There are different symbols  for each vowel, which is added to the consonant symbol to indicate combined sound

There are twelve main vowels. Hence this chart is called “bArAkhaDI”; where “bArA” means twelve.

  • Adding अ(a) to consonant has no effect. So there is no change in symbol
    In this blog, it is denoted as small a i.e. “a”
  • Adding आ(A) to consonant is denoted by extra vertical line.
    e.g. This vertical line is called काना (kAnA )
    क(k) + आ(A) = का (kA)
    ब(b) + आ(A) = बा  (bA)
    In this blog, it is denoted as capital a i.e. “A”
  • Adding इ(i) to consonant is denoted by an extra vertical line and a curve BEFORE consonant.
    This “vertical line and a curve” is called as पहिली वेलांटी  (pahili velAMTI ).
    क(k) + इ(i) = कि(ki)
    ब(b) + इ(i) = बि(bi)
    In this blog it is denoted as small i i.e. “i”
  • Adding ई(I) to consonant is denoted by an extra vertical line and a curve AFTER consonant
    This “vertical line and a curve” is called as दुसरी वेलांटी  (dusari velAMTI ).
    क(k) + ई(I) = की(kI)
    ब(b) + ई(I) = बी(bI)
    In this blog it is denoted as capital i i.e. “I”
  • Adding उ(u) to consonant is denoted by a curve below consonant. The curve is pointing to left
    This curve is called पहिला उकार (pahilA ukAr )
    क(k) + उ(u) = कु(ku)
    ब(b) + उ(u) = बु(bu)
    Exception: for  र(r) curve is added at side रु(ru)
    In this blog, it is denoted as small u  i.e. “u”
  • Adding ऊ(U) to consonant is denoted by a curve below consonant. The curve is pointing to the right.
    This curve is called दुसरा उकार (dusarA ukAr )
    क(k) + ऊ(U)  = कू(kU)
    ब(b) +  ऊ(U) = बू(bU)
    Exception: for  र(r) curve is added at side रू(rU)
    In this blog, it is denoted as capital u i.e. “U”
  • Adding ए(e) to consonant is denoted by a  slanting line above consonant.
    This slanting line is called मात्रा(mAtrA)=
    क(k) + ए(e)  = के(ke)
    ब(b) +  ए(e) = बे(be)
    In this blog it is denoted as small e i.e. “e”
  • Adding ऐ(ai) to consonant is denoted by a  TWO slanting lines above consonant.
    These slanting lines are called दोन मात्रा(don mAtrA). Where दोन (don) means two.
    क(k) + ऐ(ai)  = कै(kai)
    ब(b) +  ऐ(ai) = बै(bai)
    In this blog, it is denoted as “ai”
    Note for native Hindi speakers: read the section “Difference in pronunciation of double Matra in Marathi and Hindi” at the end of this lesson.
  • Adding ओ(o) to consonant is denoted by a  vertical line after consonant along with one slanting line above consonant.  i.e. one  काना  (kAnA) and one मात्रा(mAtrA)
    क(k) + ओ(o)  = को(ko)
    ब(b) +  ओ(o) = बो(bo)
    In this blog, it is denoted as small o i.e. “o”
  • Adding औ(au) to consonant is denoted by a  vertical line after consonant along with TWO slanting lines above consonant.  i.e. one  काना  (kAnA) and two मात्रा(mAtrA)
    क(k) + औ(au)  = कौ(kau)
    ब(b) +  औ(au) = बौ(bau)
    In this blog it is denoted as “au”
    Note for native Hindi speakers: read the section “Difference in pronunciation of double Matra in Marathi and Hindi” at the end of this blog
  • Adding अं(aM) to consonant is denoted by a  giving a dot on the consonant.
    क(k) + अं(aM)  = कं(kM)
    ब(b) +  अं(aM) = बं(bM)
    In this blog, it is denoted as capital m “M”
    For more details on the pronunciation of anusvar refer
    http://kaushiklele-learnmarathi.blogspot.com/2012/05/pronunciation-of-anusvar.html
  • Adding अः(aH) to consonant is denoted by two dots after a consonant.
    क(k) + अः(aH)  = कः(kH)
    ब(b) +  अः(aH) = बः(bH)
    In this blog, it is denoted as capital h i.e. “H”
    Traditional “barakahdi” ends above. But there are few more vowels which can be added with consonant they are as follows:
  • Adding अ‍ॅ(~a) to consonant is denoted by giving a crescent above consonant.
    क(k) + अ‍ॅ(~a)  = कॅ(k~a)
    ब(b) +  अ‍ॅ(~a) = बॅ(b~a)
    In this blog, it is denoted as “~a”
  • Adding ऑ(~0) to consonant is denoted by giving a crescent above consonant along with vertical line after a consonant.
    क(k) + ऑ(~o)  = कॉ(k~o)
    ब(b) +  ऑ(~o) = बॉ(b~o)
    In this blog, it is denoted as “~o”
  • When you want to say a consonant just half it is denoted by giving a slanting line below the consonant
    क्‌
    ब्‌

Pronunciation of double Matra in Hindi is equal to that of crescent in Marathi.

English WordWritten in Hindi asWritten in Marathi as
Stockस्टौक (sTauk )स्टॉक (sT~ok )
Blockब्लौक (blauk )ब्लॉक (bl~ok )
Rockरौक (rauk )रॉक (r~ok )
Matमैट (maiT )मॅट (m~aT )
Batबैट (baiT )बॅट (b~aT )
Ratरैट (raiT )रॅट (r~aT )

List of symbols for all consonants with vowel following above rules

क का कि की कु कू के कै को कौ कं कः कॅ कॉ क्‌
ख खा खि खी खु खू खे खै खो खौ खं खः खॅ खॉ ख्‌
ग गा गि गी गु गू गे गै गो गौ गं गः गॅ गॉ ग्‌
घ घा घि घी घु घू घे घै घो घौ घं घः घॅ घॉ घ्‌
च चा चि ची चु चू चे चै चो चौ चं चः चॅ चॉ च्‌
छ छा छि छी छु छू छे छै छो छौ छं छः छॅ छॉ छ्‌
ज जा जि जी जु जू जे जै जो जौ जं जः जॅ जॉ ज्‌
झ झा झि झी झु झू झे झै झो झौ झं झः झॅ झॉ झ्‌
ट टा टि टी टु टू टे टै टो टौ टं टः टॅ टॉ ट्‌
ठ ठा ठि ठी ठु ठू ठे ठै ठो ठौ ठं ठः ठॅ ठॉ ठ्‌
ड डा डि डी डु डू डे डै डो डौ डं डः डॅ डॉ ड्‌
ढ ढा ढि ढी ढु ढू ढे ढै ढो ढौ ढं ढः ढॅ ढॉ ढ्‌
ण णा णि णी णु णू णे णै णो णौ णं णः णॅ णॉ ण्‌
त ता ति ती तु तू ते तै तो तौ तं तः तॅ तॉ त्‌
थ था थि थी थु थू थे थै थो थौ थं थः थॅ थॉ थ्‌
द दा दि दी दु दू दे दै दो दौ दं दः दॅ दॉ द्‌
ध धा धि धी धु धू धे धै धो धौ धं धः धॅ धॉ ध्‌
न ना नि नी नु नू ने नै नो नौ नं नः नॅ नॉ न्‌
प पा पि पी पु पू पे पै पो पौ पं पः पॅ पॉ प्‌
फ फा फि फी फु फू फे फै फो फौ फं फः फॅ फॉ फ्‌
ब बा बि बी बु बू बे बै बो बौ बं बः बॅ बॉ ब्‌
भ भा भि भी भु भू भे भै भो भौ भं भः भॅ भॉ भ्‌
म मा मि मी मु मू मे मै मो मौ मं मः मॅ मॉ म्‌
य या यि यी यु यू ये यै यो यौ यं यः यॅ यॉ य्‌
र रा रि री रु रू रे रै रो रौ रं रः रॅ रॉ र्‌
ल ला लि ली लु लू ले लै लो लौ लं लः लॅ लॉ ल्‌
व वा वि वी वु वू वे वै वो वौ वं वः वॅ वॉ व्‌
श शा शि शी शु शू शे शै शो शौ शं शः शॅ शॉ श्‌
ष षा षि षी षु षू षे षै षो षौ षं षः षॅ षॉ ष्‌
स सा सि सी सु सू से सै सो सौ सं सः सॅ सॉ स्‌
ह हा हि ही हु हू हे है हो हौ हं हः हॅ हॉ ह्‌
ळ ळा ळि ळी ळु ळू ळे ळै ळो ळौ ळं ळः ळॅ ळॉ ळ्‌
क्ष क्षा क्षि क्षी क्षु क्षू क्षे क्षै क्षो क्षौ क्षं क्षः क्षॅ क्षॉ क्ष्‌
ज्ञ ज्ञा ज्ञि ज्ञी ज्ञु ज्ञू ज्ञे ज्ञै ज्ञो ज्ञौ ज्ञं ज्ञः ज्ञॅ ज्ञॉ ज्ञ्‌

Listen This Lessons Online

pronunciation of Marathi Barakhadi

Difference in pronunciation of double Matra in Marathi and Hindi

List of symbols for all consonants with vowel