Let us learn Past/Present/Future Perfect tense in Marathi.
I have given a few examples first, and grammar discussed in detail afterwards.
मै गया था ( mai gayA thA )
मी गेलो होतो ( mI gelo hoto )
तू बोला था ( tU bolA thA )
तू बोलला होतास ( tU bolalA hotAs )
वो कल आया होगा ( vo kal AyA hogA )
तो उद्या आला असेल ( to udyA AlA asel )
उसने आम खाया है ( usane Am khAyA hai )
त्याने आंबा खाल्ला आहे ( tyAne AMbA khAllA Ahe )
इसने इमली खायी है ( isane imalI khAyI hai )
ह्याने चिंच खाल्ली आहे ( hyAne ciMch khAllI Ahe )
तूने शर्ट धोया होगा ( tUne sharT dhoyA hogA )
तू शर्ट धुतला असशील ( tU sharT dhutalA asashIl )
The sentence structure in Marathi is same as Hindi. So first we understand structure in Hindi. Then it will be easy to understand same in Marathi.
Consider the sentence in Past Perfect, Present Perfect and Future perfect tense.
मै गया था ( mai gayA thA).
मै गया हूं ( mai gayA hUM ).
मै गया होऊंगा ( mai gayA hoUMgA )
Point 1) As you can see “मै गया” is common part in all three tenses. Depending on tense था / हूं / होऊंगा is appended.
If same sentences were spoken by a girl, they will be :-
मै गयी थी ( mai gayI thI
मै गयी हूं ( mai gayI hUM )
मै गयी होऊंगी ( mai gayI hoUMgI )
Point 2) The difference is that depending on gender थी /हूं /होऊंगी is used or था / हूं / होऊंगा is used.
Point 3) The common part “मै गया” or “मै गयी” are nothing but simple past tense.
Consider another examples
मैने आम खाया था ( maine Am khAyA thA )
मैने चटनी खायी थी ( maine chaTanI khAyI thI )
Point 4) As verb खाना ( khAnA ) is सकर्मक क्रियापद ( sakarmak kriyApad ), the common part i.e. “मैने खाया” , “मैने खायी”; as well as form of verb “होना” is as per noun i.e. कर्म ( karm ) which are “आम” and “चटनी” in these two cases.
In short in Hindi structure is
“Sentence in simple past tense” followed by form of “होना”.
If verb is अकर्मक (akarmak) i.e. which does not need noun then form of “होना” is based on tense AND gender, pluralism of कर्ता ( kartA )
If the verb is सकर्मक ( sakarmak ) i.e. which needs noun, then form of “होना” is based on tense AND gender, pluralism of कर्म ( karm )
This is exact way in “perfect” tense sentence is prepared in Marathi.
“Sentence in simple past tense” followed by form of verb “असणे” .
Read previous lessons to understand Simple past tense:-
Read the previous lesson to understand the form of असणे in Marathi. :-
Listen examples in this lesson
Try creating sentences with different verbs using above rules. Crosscheck them by creating same by “verb forms” feature on http://learnmarathiwithkaushik.com/