We have seen that when using a preposition with pronouns or nouns, the form of pronouns or nouns changes which is called सामान्य रूप (sAmAnya rUp) in Marathi or Oblique case form in English. The same way happens while using a preposition with the verb.

For example, in English, we say “after doing”, “before singing”, “while writing”.
In English we use the “-ing” form of the verb for proposition usage.

In Marathi ण्या (NyA) is suffixed to verb.

e.g.

Verb in EnglishVerb in Marahti
सामान्य रूप (sAmAnya rUp) in Marathi of verb
doकर (kar )करण्या karaNyA
speakबोल (bol )
बोलण्या (bolaNyA )
danceनाच (nAch )नाचण्या (nAchaNyA )

About speaking: बोलण्याबद्दल (bolaNyAbaddal)
For eating: खाण्यासाठी (khANyAsAThI)
reason of coming: येण्याचे कारण (yeNyAche kAraN)

Special behavior for preposition “after”

The preposition “after” can be used in two ways. Consider two sentences.
1) She spoke after my dancing
2) She spoke after I danced

The first sentence can be formed by the above rule.
After dancing: नाचण्यानंतर (nAchaNyAnaMtar )
She spoke after my dancing -> माझ्या नाचण्यानंतर ती गायली (mAjhyA nAchaNyAnaMtar tI gAyalI)

In the second sentence, we used “after I danced”.
“I danced” in Marathi is “मी नाचलो”
So in such cases, we suffix ल्या (lyA) instead of ण्या (NyA) So “after danced” becomes नाचल्यानंतर (nAchalyAnaMtar)

Full-sentence will be
She spoke after I danced -> मी नाचल्यानंतर ती बोलली (mI nAchalyAnaMtar tI bolalI)
He cried after she went -> ती गेल्यानंतर तो रडला ( tI gelyAnaMtar to raDalA )

When you are talking about past action or action about to happen soon; we suffix चे(che) to this verb form. So these sentences can be said in two ways.
The below examples will make it clear. The first translation is usual way and other using “verb form” + चे(che)

He told about his coming to school ->
तो शाळेत आला असे त्याने मला सांगितले (to shALet AlA ase tyAne malA sAMgitale)
तो शाळेत आल्याचे त्याने मला सांगितले (to shALet AlyAche tyAne malA sAMgitale)

He told me that he is coming to school ->
तो शाळेत येत आहे असे त्याने मला सांगितले (to shALet yet Ahe ase tyAne malA sAMgitale)
तो शाळेत येत असल्याचे त्याने मला सांगितले (to shALet yet asalyAche tyAne malA sAMgitale)

He told me that he is going to come to school ->
तो शाळेत येणार आहे असे त्याने मला सांगितले (to shALet yeNAr Ahe ase tyAne malA sAMgitale)
तो शाळेत येणार असल्याचे त्याने मला सांगितले (to shALet yeNAr asalyAche tyAne malA sAMgitale)

I don’t remember she having said something like this ->
ती असे काही बोलली आहे असे मला आठवत नाही (tI ase kAhI bolalI Ahe ase malA AThavat nAhI)
ती असे काही बोलली असल्याचे मला आठवत नाही (tI ase kAhI bolalI asalyAche malA AThavat nAhI)

I don’t remember she having eaten mango ->
तीने आंबा खाल्ला असे मला आठवत नाही (tIne AMbA khAllA ase malA AThavat nAhI)
तीने आंबा खाल्ल्याचे मला आठवत नाही (tIne AMbA khAllyAche malA AThavat nAhI)

Special behavior for preposition “while”

Suffix for “while” is “ताना (tAnA)

“While” can also be used in two ways
1) Do not stop while I speak
2) Do not stop while I am speaking

In first sentence, the verb is simple present tense. In such cases the suffix in “ताना (tAnA)
While speak: बोलताना (bolatAnA )
While do: करताना (karatAnA )
While dance :- नाचताना ( nAchatAnA )

In the second sentence the verb is present continuous tense.
I am speaking ->मी बोलत आहे (mI bolat Ahe)
आहे (Ahe ) is the form of verb असणे (asaNe ). Suffix ताना (tAnA) gets added to verb असणे(asaNe) i.e.
अस(as) + ताना (tAnA)= असताना (asatAnA)
So in short for the second style, the verbs will be as shown below:-

While speaking: बोलत असताना (bolat asatAnA)
While doing: करत असताना (karat asatAnA)
While dancing: नाचत असताना ( nAchat asatAnA)

Special behavior for preposition “to”

Suppose we are telling someone “Come to see this movie”, “Come to drink coffee”.
Here we used “to see”, “to drink” , we did not use “seeing”,” drinking” etc.
Similarly, in Marathi we use a different form for the preposition “to”. We append आयला (AyalA) to verb

to see: बघायला (baghAyalA )
to do: करायला (karAyalA)
to speak: बोलायला (bolAyalA)
to dance: नाचायला(nAchAyalA)

Come to see this photo: फोटो बघायला ये (phoTo baghAyalA ye )
Come to eat with me: माझ्याबरोबर जेवायला ये (mAjhyAbarobar jevAyalA ye)

Special behavior for “and”

In English we use the preposition “and” to join two verbs to indicate one action followed by another. E.g. “come and see this”, “sit and eat it” etc.
In Marathi, we will suffix ऊन (Un) to the first verb to indicate continuation.

e.g.
Sit and watch: बसून बघ (basUn bagh)
come and go: येऊन जा (yeUn jA)
he came and saw it: त्याने येऊन बघितले (tyAne yeUn baghitale )
They will go and check it: ते जाऊन तपासतील (te jAUn tapAsatIl)
smile and say: हसून बोल ( hasoon bol)

Special behavior for "till","until"

n English we say “wait till he comes”, “do not stop until I say”.
“Till”, “Until” in Marathi is पर्यंत (paryaMt )
In Marathi, we will suffix ए(e) to the verb stem. If the verb stem does not end with vowel अ(a) then it is suffixed with ई(I).

e.g.
till I speak: मी बोले पर्यंत (mI bole paryMt )
until she smiles: ती हसे पर्यंत ( tI hase paryaMt )
till he goes: तो जाई पर्यंत ( to jAI paryaMt )
until we come: आम्ही येई पर्यंत ( AmhI yeI paryaMt )

Listen examples in this lesson

Exercise

Try creating sentences with different verbs using above rules. Crosscheck them by creating same by “verb forms” feature on http://learnmarathiwithkaushik.com/