Exaplanation for “अनुस्वार” (anusvAr)

In the table for vowels there is row :

अंaMAs sound of "um" in number, sound of "um" as in jum

This will need more attention to understand its pronunciation.
The dot given on the character is called “अनुस्वार” (anusvAr)

The anusvaar (अनुस्वार ) is a nasal sound. The अनुस्वार itself does not determine the pronunciation of a word. Rather, it is the character that follows the अनुस्वारthat determines the pronunciation. There are seven possibilities that affect the pronunciation of a अनुस्वार.

So though we will use capital ‘M’ to indicate अनुस्वार, you may need to pronounce it differently depending on the case.

Rules for pronunciation of anusvaar (अनुस्वार )

Rule 1: If the nasal dot is followed by the क (k), ख (kh), ग (g), घ (gh) the nasal dot will be pronounced as ङ ( G)

e.g. ‘n’ in “sing”

Examples:

English wordSynonym in MarathiTransliteration in roman scipt. “अनुस्वार” (anusvAr) marked as ‘M’Simpler transliteration to explain pronunciation of “अनुस्वार” (anusvAr)
Digit
अंक
aMk
ank
Fanपंखा
paMkhA
pankhA
Comb
कंगवा
kaMgava
kangava
Bath
आंघोळ
AMghoL
Anghol

Rule 2: If the nasal dot is followed by characters च (ch), छ (Ch), ज (j), झ (jh) the dot is pronounced as ञ (nY)

e.g. ‘n’ in the English word “munch”

Examples:

English wordSynonym in MarathiTransliteration in roman scipt. “अनुस्वार” (anusvAr) marked as ‘M’Simpler transliteration to explain pronunciation of “अनुस्वार” (anusvAr)
Set
संच
saMch
sanch
कंछ
kaMCh
kanCh
Thread for kite
मांजा
mAMjA
mAnjA
सांझ
sAMjh
sanjh

Rule 3: If the nasal dot is followed by characters ट (T), ठ (Th), ड (D) ढ (Dh) ण ( N)  the dot is pronounced as ण ( N)

Examples:

English wordSynonym in MarathiTransliteration in roman scipt. “अनुस्वार” (anusvAr) marked as ‘M’Simpler transliteration to explain pronunciation of “अनुस्वार” (anusvAr)
Boreकंटाळा
kaMTALA
kaNtala
Dry ginger
सुंठ
suMTh
suNTh
pot
भांडे
bhAMDebhANDe
Eunuch
षंढShaMDh
ShaNDh

Rule 4: If the nasal dot is followed by characters त (t) n थ (th ) द (d) ध (dh) न (n) the dot is pronounced as न (n)

Examples:

English wordSynonym in MarathiTransliteration in roman scipt. “अनुस्वार” (anusvAr) marked as ‘M’Simpler transliteration to explain pronunciation of “अनुस्वार” (anusvAr)
saint
संत
saMt
sant
gradual
संथ
saMth
santh
close
बंद
baMd
band
joint
सांधा
sAMdhA
sAndhA
To them
त्यांना
tyAMnA
tyAnnA

Rule 5: If the nasal dot is followed by characters प (p),फ (ph ),ब (b ),भ (bh ),म (m) the dot is pronounced as म (m)

Examples:

English wordSynonym in MarathiTransliteration in roman scipt. “अनुस्वार” (anusvAr) marked as ‘M’Simpler transliteration to explain pronunciation of “अनुस्वार” (anusvAr)
pumpपंप
paMp
pamp
अंफaMph
amph
mangoआंबाAMbAAmbA
start
आरंभ
AraMbhArambh
ApprovalसंमतीsaMmatIsammatI

Rule 6: If the nasal dot is followed by characters य(y) र(r) ल(l) व(v) श(sh) ष(Sh) स(s) ह(h) ळ(L) क्ष(kSh) ज्ञ(dny) the dot is pronounced as अं(aM)

Examples:

English wordSynonym in MarathiTransliteration in roman scipt. “अनुस्वार” (anusvAr) marked as ‘M’Simpler transliteration to explain pronunciation of “अनुस्वार” (anusvAr)
Part
अंश
aMsh
amsh
Bracket
कंस
kaMs
kans
Term
संज्ञा
saMdnyA
saMdnyA
patience
संयम
saMyam
sanyam
Dialogue
संवाद
saMvAd
samvAd

Rule 7: If the nasal dot is followed by the space character the dot is pronounced as half म i.e.

Example: एवं = एवम्‌ (evam)

Rule 8: Use of अनुस्वार to indicate a change in pronunciation in the colloquial language.

In day-to-day communication, words ending with vowel ए (e) are said in little differently. Instead of pronouncing ए (e), the consonant is pronounced elongated. And this change is pronunciation is indicated by अनुस्वार; though there is no nasal sound.

e.g. “Trees” is English is झाडे (jhADe) in Marathi. But in day-to-day communication, it can be said as झाडं (jhADM). Where ending ड(d) is pronounce elongated. Similarly “Leaves” in English is पाने(pAne). It can also be said as पानं (pAnM).

It may sound contrary to rule 7 discussed above. But note that, rule 7 is present in Marathi because of the influence of Sanskrit language. There is hardly any Marathi word having अनुस्वार (anusvaar) on ending vowel.

So unless you know that you are quoting something from Sanskrit, you need not apply rule 7. Apply rule 8 i.e. say the ending vowel elongated.

Rule 8 is also applicable when pair of word is present. e.g. words कसे(kase) and तरी (tarI) are used together to make combined word कसेतरी (kasetarI). Now, कसे(kase) can be said as कसं (kasa). So combined word can also be said as कसंतरी (kasaMtarI)
So you will NOT apply rule 4 to say it कसन्तरी (kasantarI)

Similarly, झाडेबिडे(jhADebiDe) can be pronounced as झाडंबिडं (jhADMbiDM ). So you will NOT apply rule 3 & 7 to say it झाडम्बिडम्‌ (jhADambiDam)
So you should know if it is a combined word or a single word to pronounce it correctly.

Rule of thumb is,
if the word ends with तर (tar), तरी (tarI), ही (hI) then it is a combined word. e.g. कसंतरी (kasaMtarI ) कुठंही (kuThMhI )खरंतर (kharaMtar)
If the word is a pair of two rhyming words then it is a combined word. झाडं-बिडं (jhADMbiDM),हलकं-फुलकं (halakaMphulakaM), साधं-बिधं (sAdhaMbidhaM)
If a word is a pair of opposite words then it is a combined word. खरं-खोटं(kharaM-khoTM, भलं-बुरं(kharaM-khoTM, bhalM-buraM)

Listen Rule number 8

Rule 9: अनुस्वार  in सामान्यरूप form of plural of noun

In day-to-day communication, words ending with vowel ए (e) are said in little differently. Instead of pronouncing ए (e), the consonant is pronounced elongated. And this change is pronunciation is indicated by अनुस्वार; though there is no nasal sound.

In Marathi, the form of the noun changes before adding any preposition to it. This concept is thoroughly discussed in the lesson
http://kaushiklele-learnmarathi.blogspot.com/2012/05/working-with-nouns-prepositions.html

In सामान्यरूप form of plural of noun whenever there is अनुस्वार at end it is pronounced as light half “न(n)” irrespective of the following consonant.

e.g

Word: संप(saMp)
सामान्यरूप form of plural of word: संपां(saMpAM)
Full word examples संपांपासून (saMpAMpAsUn ).
This word is actually pronounced as सम्पान्पासून (sampAnpaasUn).
So here first anusvar (in सं) is pronounced as half “म”(m) because next consonant is “प(p)” as in Rule 5. But second anusvar (in पां )is pronounced as half “न(n)” even if next consonant is again “प(p)” as in Rule 9.

Word: माठ(mATh)
सामान्यरूप form of plural of word: माठां(mAThAM)
So words like माठांकरिता(mAThAMkaritA), माठांपासून(mAThAMpAsUn) are actually pronounced as माठान्करिता (mAThAnkaritA), माठान्पासून (mAThAnpAsUn)

Other example;
word: पान(pAn)
सामान्यरूप form of plural of word: पानां(pAnAM)
So words like पानांकरिता (pAnAMkaritA ), पानांपासून(pAnAMpAsUn)
are pronounced as पानान्करिता (pAnAnkaritA ), पानान्पासून(pAnAnpAsUn)

Listen Rule 9