In English we take permission by asking “May I come in” , “May I use this”?
In Marathi we ask such questions as this format:-
subject ( मी/आम्ही ) verb+ऊ का?
For verb “To come” i.e. “ये”(ye) -> मी येऊ का ? (mI yeU kA)
For verb “To go” i.e. “जा “(jA) -> मी जाऊ का ? ( mI jAU kA )
May I come -> मी येऊ का? (mI yeU kA)
May I go -> मी जाऊ का? (mI jAU kA)
May we come -> आम्ही येऊ का? (AmhI yeU kA)
May we go -> आम्ही जाऊ का? (AmhI jAU kA)
May we speak -> आम्ही बोलू का ( AmhI bolU kA )
In English, we request others as “May you come” , “May you say”.
The same sentences can be said as “Can you come”, “Can you say”.
In Marathi there is not separate from “May you”, “May he” etc. So when using “May” with other than “I” or “We”, sentences should be said as “Can you”, “Can he” etc.
Refer this lesson to know more details using “Can” in Marathi :
May you come -> Can you come -> तुम्ही येऊ शकता का? ( tumhI yeU shakatA kA ? )
May you speak -> Can you speak -> तुम्ही बोलू शकता का? ( tumhI bolU shakatA kA )
May he tell -> Can he tell -> तो सांगू शकतो का? ( to sAMgU shakato kA ? )
Can I tell -> मी सांगू शकतो का? ( mI sAMgU shakato kA ? )
Can I write -> मी लिहू शकतो का? ( mI lihU shakato kA ? )
Sometimes Marathi people request this way as well “पेन देता का” ( “pen detA kA”) ,”पत्ता सांगता का” ( “pattA sAMgatA kA” ). To translate it literally it is “Do you give pen”, “Do you tell address”. It might sound weird to an English speaker. But this is the style used in Marathi. This style is used only for “you” – single as well as plural.
May you come -> Do you come -> येता का ( yetA kA )
May you speak -> Can you speak -> बोलता का? ( bolatA kA? )
May you give pen -> Do you give pen -> “पेन देता का” ( “pen detA kA”)
Sometimes such sentences are started with words like जरा(jarA), थोडं ( thoDaM) to sound it more poilte.
जरा पेन देता का ? ( jarA pen detA kA),
जरा पत्ता सांगता का ? ( jarA pattA sAMgatA kA ).
Listen examples in this lesson
Try creating sentences with different verbs using the above rules. Crosscheck them by creating the same by “verb forms” feature on http://learnmarathiwithkaushik.com/