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In previous lesson (http://learnmarathiwithkaushik.com/courses/simple-past-tense-of-to-be-in-gujarati/) we studied simple Past tense of verb “To Be”. Let us see the simple past tense of other verbs.

In Simple past tense there 2 types of statements.

Type 1) Verbs which require nouns/objective i.e. transitive verbs

e.g. I ate mango.

Here “I” is subjective/Nominative and “mango” is objective.

In Gujarati such verbs are called સકર્મક ક્રિયાપદ(sakarmak kriyApad)

 

Type 2) Verbs which do not require nouns/objective i.e. intransitive verbs

e.g. I speak.

Here “I” is subjective (Nominative) . The verb speak does not need noun/objective

In Gujarati such verbs are called અકર્મક ક્રિયાપદ(akarmak kriyApad)

 

For 1st kind of statement verb is formed according to gender of objective

And in 2nd kind of statement verb is formed according to gender of Pronoun/subjective/Nominative

 

Suffixes are as follows

English PronounGujarati PronounSuffix to verb
Masculine Singular Pronouns
I, You, He, This, That
હું (huM), તું (tuM), આ/એ/તે (A/e/te)

પુલ્લિંગી
યો (yo )
Feminine Singular Pronouns
I, You, She, This, That
હું (huM), તું (tuM), આ/એ/તે (A/e/te)

સ્ત્રિલિંગી
ઈ (I)
Neuter Singular Pronouns. Generally only in third person
It, This, That
આ/એ/તે (A/e/te)

નપુસકલિંગ
યું (yuM )
Masculine plural pronouns
We, You(plural), They, Those, You(plural)
અમે (ame), આપણે (ApaNe),
તમે (tame )
તેઓ/ એ/તે (teo /e/te)

પુલ્લિંગી
યા (yA)
First & Second person plural for Feminine
We, You(plural) and Polite form
અમે (ame), આપણે (ApaNe),
તમે (tame ) , તેઓ(teo)

સ્ત્રિલિંગી
યાં (yAM)
Third plural for Feminine
They/Those/These
તેઓ/આ/એ/તે (teo /A/e/te)

સ્ત્રિલિંગી
ઈ (I)
Plurals in neuter gender
Generally only in third person
Or Group of different gender perosns
આ/એ/તે (A/e/te)યાં (yAM)

Note that these suffixes follow ઓ-ઈ-ઉં-આ-ઈ-આં (o-I-uM-A-I-AM ) યો-ઈ-યું-યા-ઈ-યાં ( yo-I-yuM-yA-I-yAM ) rule

Note that suffixes merge with last consonant of the verb stem

So,
બોલ(bol) + યો(yo) = બોલ્યો(bolyo )  and Not બોલયો  (bolayo)
ચાલ(chAl ) + યું(yuM ) = ચાલ્યું (chAlyuM ) an NOT ચાલયું ( chAlayuM)

Examples of અકર્મક ક્રિયાપદ(akarmak kriyApad) i.e. verb that do not need noun

1) (If boy says) I laughed
Here કર્તા(kartA) i.e. doer of action is masculine singular. So we use suffix યો (yo ). હસ(has) + યો(yo) = હસ્યો (hasyo)
(If boy says) I laughed -> હું હસ્યો (huM hasyo )

2) Similarly,
(If said to one boy) You walked -> તું ચાલ્યો (tuM chAlyo )

3) (If girl says) I laughed
Here કર્તા(kartA) i.e. doer of action is feminine singular. So we use suffix ઈ (I). હસ(has) + ઈ (I) = હસી (hasI)
(If girl says) I laughed ->હું હસી (huM hasI)

4) Similarly,
(If said to one girl) You walked -> તું ચાલી (tuM chAlI )

5) They said
Here કર્તા(kartA) i.e. doer of action is plural. As gender is unknown we will use neuter plural form i.e. યાં (yAM).
બોલ(bol) + યાં (yAM) = બોલ્યાં(bolyAM)
They said -> તેઓ બોલ્યાં (teo bolyAM )

6) He(polite form) sat
Here કર્તા(kartA) i.e. doer of action is polite form of pronoun. So we use suffix યા (yA). બેસ(bes) + યા (yA) = બેસ્યા (besyA)
He(polite) sat -> તેઓ બેસ્યા (teo besyA)

7) This girl said -> આ છોકરી બોલી ( A ChokarI bolI )

8) Those girls said -> એ છોકરીઓ બોલી ( e ChokarIo bolI )

Listen examples in this lesson at

Simple Past Tense in Gujarati Part 1

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