Consider two sentences.
1) Toy moved 2) I moved toy
The first sentence talks about an action that was taken by a toy. The second sentence says what caused that action. It was me! In both sentences, we used the verb “move”.
But in Marathi verb will change when you want to indicate the cause of action.
Toy moved -> खेळणे हलले (kheLaNe halale)
I moved toy -> मी खेळणे हलवले (mI kheLaNe halavale)
So in a simple sentence, we used verb हलणे(halaNe).To indicate the cause of action we used verb हलवणे (halavaNe).
This is what I am calling as a Causative verb. There is a different way to create a causative verb.
As you can see causative verb हलवणे (halavaNe) is very similar to the main verb हलणे(halaNe).
We just added व(v) to the stem of main verb to make causative verb.
हल (hala) + व(v) -> हलव (halav)
To cook -> शिजणे (shijaNe)
To cause to cook -> शिजवणे (shijavaNe)
Rice cooked -> भात शिजला (bhAt shijalA )
I cooked rice -> मी भात शिजवला (mI bhAt shijavalA)
There is another way to create a causative verb.
In the first letter of the verb, a vowel is changed from अ(a) to आ(A)
To Die -> मरणे (maraNe)
To cause to die / To kill -> मारणे (mAraNe)
To fall -> पडणे (paDaNe)
To cause to fall -> पाडणे (pADaNe)
Other way is to change उट(uT) in the beginning of verb to ओड(oD)
To break -> फुटणे (phuTaNe)
Beginning is फुट(phuT) i.e. फ(ph) + उट(ut)
Now, फ(ph) + ओड(oD) -> फोड (phoD)
So verb becomes फोडणे (phoDaNe)
To break -> फुटणे (phuTaNe)
To cause break -> फोडणे (phoDaNe)
Glass broke -> ग्लास फुटला (glAs phuTalA )
I broke glass -> मी ग्लास फोडला (mI glAs phoDalA )
To leave -> सुटणे(suTaNe)
To cause to leave -> सोडणे(soDaNe)
Unrelated verb as causative verb
To drink ->पीणे(pINe)
To cause to drink / To feed a liquid -> पाजणे (pAjaNe)
To eat -> खाणे (khANe)
To feed -> भरवणे (bharavaNe)
1: There is no grammar rule which dictates which of the above way to be used to create causative verb. It is just custom that dictates.
As per way 1, the causative verb of मरणे (maraNe) could have been मरवणे(maravaNe). But is NOT so. It is मारणे(mAraNe). Why? The answer is custom 🙂
2: Similarly, not all verbs can have its causative verb.
3: Sometimes the verb which looks like a causative form has an altogether different meaning.
बोलणे(bolaNe) means “to speak” but बोलवणे(bolavaNe) does NOT mean cause to speak. It means “To Call”
पळणे(paLaNe) means “to run” but पाळणे(pALaNe) means “To keep a domestic animal”
So looking at so much irregularity, a simple way to study is to treat each verb separately.
But I added this lesson here because in the next 4 lessons where I have listed verbs in English and Marathi. You may find that there are two rows for a few verbs. You may think that they are synonyms. But with reference to this lesson and example given there, you will understand that one row is for the main verb and the other is for the causative verb.
Those who know Hindi or other Indian languages, it is not a new concept. Such pairs are present there as well. e.g. in Hindi,
मरना-मारना(maranA-mAranA), पीना-पिलाना(pInA-pilAnA), हिलना-हिलाना(hilanA-hilAnA) etc.