By now we have studied many grammar concepts including tense. We have seen the forms of verb in simple past tense is base of perfect tenses and other phrases. 

We have also observed that few verbs behave differently when their past tense form is created.

 

As per rule we append लो(lo) to verb to create its past tense form for “I”.

e.g. I spoke -> मी बोललो ( mI bolalo )

I laughed -> मी हसलो ( mI hasalo )

i.e.  

बोल (bol)+ लो (lo)  =  बोललो (bolalo )

हस(has)+ लो (lo)  = हसलो ( hasalo )

 

But,

I went -> मी गेलो( mI gelo ). 

 

Now verb is “जाणे”(jANe). so we should have said जा(jA) + लो(lo)= जालो (jAlo ). 

But we did not say say. We appended suffix to गे(ge) to make it गेलो(gelo).

 

This is what I want to point out ! The unusual behaviour of few verbs. !! The verbs which change themselves before creating past tense form. As past tense form is base of many other tenses and phrases it is important to know such form.

 

In below table I have given verb, changed verb on which suffix to be applied and a sentence in simple past tense.

 

Verb in English

Verb in

Marathi

Changed

verb

before

appending

suffix

Simple example

 with suffix ला (lA)

Example

do

करणे

karaNe

के(ke)

केला(kelA)

I did it 

मी तो केला 

(mI to kelA)

try

प्रयत्न करणे

prayatn karaNe

प्रयत्न के

(prayatn ke)

प्रयत्न केला

(prayatn kelA)

tried learning French फ्रेंच शिकायचा प्रयत्न केला

(phreMch shikAyachA 

prayatn kelA )

give

देणे deNe

दि(dI)

दिला

(dilA)

Gave pen  पेन दिले 

(pen dile )

take

घेणे gheNe

घेत (ghet)

घेतला

(ghetalA)

took pen  पेन घेतले 

(pen ghetale)

live

राहणे rAhaNe

राहि (rAhi )

राहिला

(rAhilA)

lived in city  मी शहरात राहिलो  

mI shaharAt rAhilo

see

/watch

/look

बघणे baghaNe

बघित

(baghit )

बघितला

(baghitalA)

saw notice  

सूचना बघितली 

sUchanA baghitalI

 

पाहणे pAhaNe

पाहि

(pAhi )

पाहिला(pAhilA)

saw notice  

सूचना पाहिली  

( sUchanA pAhilI )

go

जाणे jANe

गे (ge)

गेला(gelA)

went to market

बाजारात गेलो 

( bAjArAt gelo )

come

येणे yeNe

(A)

आला(AlA)

came from market

बाजारातून आलो 

( bAjArAtUn Alo )

tell

सांगणे sAMgaNe

सांगित

(sAMgit )

सांगितला

(sAMgitalA)

told address

पत्ता संगितला 

( pattA sAMgitalA )

To recite

म्हणणे mhaNaNe

म्हट 

(mhaT )

म्हटला

(mhaTalA)

recited poem

कविता म्हटली

 ( kavitA mhaTalI )

to sing

गाणे gANe

गाय

( gAy )

गायला

(gAyalA)

sang a song  

गाणे गायले 

( gANe gAyale )

To ask for

मागणे mAgaNe

मागित

(mAgit )

मागितला

(mAgitalA)

asked for his pen  

त्याचे पेन मागितले

(tyAche pen mAgitale )

To wash

धूणे dhUNe

धुत

(dhut )

धुतला

(dhutalA)

Washed face

तोंड धुतले

 ( toMD dhutale )

To Drink

पीणे pINe

प्याय

(pyAy )

प्यायला(pyAyalA)

Drank tea

चहा प्यायला ( chahA pyAyalA )

To Eat

खाणे khANe

खाल् (khAl )

खाल्ला (khAllA)

Ate bread

ब्रेड खाल्ला (breD khAllA)

To Ask for

मागणे mAgaNe 

 

मागित

(mAgit)

मागितला

(mAgitalA)

Asked for tea

चहा मागितला

 (chahA mAgitalA)

To Become

होणे hoNe

झा

(jhA)

झाला

(jhAlA)

Became rich

श्रीमंत झाला

(shrImaMt jhAlA)

To get

मिळणे (miLaNe)

 

मिळा (miLA)

 

 

मिळाला (miLAlA)

 

Got work

काम मिळाले 

(kAm miLAle )

 

To run

पळणे (paLaNe)

पळा (paLA)

पळाला (paLAlA)

he ran fast

तो जोराने पळाला 

(to jorAne paLAlA )

 

 

Notes :-

1) Similar to “To Try” , there are many verbs in Marathi which are created using करणे (karaNe) e.g. व्यायाम करणे (vyAyAm  karaNe ), आंघोळ करणे (AMghoL karaNe). 

In all such verbs, the form of करणे (karaNe) will be created as per above rule

 

2) For verb म्हणणे ( mhaNaNe), the forms can be created with normal verb as well. so म्हटला (mhaTalA ) and म्हणला (mhaNalA) both forms are used.

 


Listen examples in this lesson at

https://youtu.be/B_MhOw7don0

 

 

 

More explanation about forms of verb म्हणणे ( mhaNaNe)

Past tense of Verb म्हणणे is formed in two ways

1) Like a अकर्मक verb

2) Like a सकर्मक verb


If sentence has a object then second way will be used more than first way.


1) Like a अकर्मक verb.  

i.e. The suffixes are appended as per gender and multiplicity of Subject. Sometimes people change verb stem from “म्हण” to “म्हणा”. 


I sang(said) a hymn/10 hymns/ a poem/10 poems/a song/10 songs  ->

Masculine singular

मी श्लोक/१० श्लोक/कविता /१० कविता/गाणे/१० गाणी म्हणलो/म्हणालो

(mI shlok/10 shlok/kavitA /10 kavitA/gANe/10 gANI mhaNalo/mhaNAlo)


Feminine singular

मी श्लोक/१० श्लोक/कविता /१० कविता/गाणे/१० गाणी म्हणले/म्हणाले

(mI shlok/10 shlok/kavitA /10 kavitA/gANe/10 gANI mhaNale/mhaNAle)


We sang(said) a hymn/10 hymns/ a poem/10 poems/a song/10 songs ->

आम्ही श्लोक/१० श्लोक/कविता /१० कविता/गाणे/१० गाणी म्हणलो/म्हणालो

(AmhI shlok/10 shlok/kavitA /10 kavitA/gANe/10 gANI mhaNalo/mhaNAlo)



You(singular) sang(said) a hymn/10 hymns/ a poem/10 poems/a song/10 songs ->

 

Masculine singular

तू श्लोक/१० श्लोक/कविता /१० कविता/गाणे/१० गाणी म्हणलास/म्हणालास

(tU shlok/10 shlok/kavitA /10 kavitA/gANe/10 gANI mhaNalAs/mhaNAlAs)


Feminine singular

तू श्लोक/१० श्लोक/कविता /१० कविता/गाणे/१० गाणी म्हणलीस/म्हणालीस

(tU shlok/10 shlok/kavitA /10 kavitA/gANe/10 gANI mhaNalIs/mhaNAlIs)


He sang(said) a hymn/10 hymns/ a poem/10 poems/a song/10 songs ->

तो श्लोक/१० श्लोक/कविता /१० कविता/गाणे/१० गाणी म्हणला/म्हणाला

(to shlok/10 shlok/kavitA /10 kavitA/gANe/10 gANI mhaNalaa/mhaNAlaa)


2) Like a सकर्मक verb. 

The suffixes are appended as per gender and multiplicity of Object. Suffixes are appended to “म्हट”


Masculine object “श्लोक”

Singular

I/We/You/You(plural)/He/She/They sang a hymn ->

मी/आम्ही/तु/तुम्ही/त्याने/तिने/त्यांनी श्लोक म्हटला

(mI/AmhI/tu/tumhI/tyAne/tine/tyAMnI shlok mhaTalA)


Plural 

I/We/You/You(plural)/He/She/They sang 10 hymns ->

मी/आम्ही/तु/तुम्ही/त्याने/तिने/त्यांनी १० श्लोक म्हटले (mI/AmhI/tu/tumhI/tyAne/tine/tyAMnI 10 shlok mhaTale)


Feminine object “कविता”

Singular

I/We/You/You(plural)/He/She/They sang a poem.

मी/आम्ही/तु/तुम्ही/त्याने/तिने/त्यांनी कविता म्हटली

(mI/AmhI/tu/tumhI/tyAne/tine/tyAMnI kavitA mhaTalI)


Plural 

I/We/You/You(plural)/He/She/They sang 10 poems ->

मी/आम्ही/तु/तुम्ही/त्याने/तिने/त्यांनी कविता म्हटल्या (mI/AmhI/tu/tumhI/tyAne/tine/tyAMnI kavitA mhaTalyA)


Neuter object “गाणे”

Singular

I/We/You/You(plural)/He/She/They sang a song ->

मी/आम्ही/तु/तुम्ही/त्याने/तिने/त्यांनी गाणे म्हटले 

(mI/AmhI/tu/tumhI/tyAne/tine/tyAMnI gANe mhaTale)


Plural 

I/We/You/You(plural)/He/She/They sang 10 songs ->

मी/आम्ही/तु/तुम्ही/त्याने/तिने/त्यांनी १० गाणी म्हटली (mI/AmhI/tu/tumhI/tyAne/tine/tyAMnI 10 gANI mhaTalI)

 

 

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