In previous lesson (http://learn-gujarati-from-english.blogspot.com/2013/11/simple-past-tense-of-to-be-in-gujarati.html) we studied simple Past tense of verb “To Be”. Let us see the simple past tense of other verbs.

In Simple past tense there 2 types of statements.


Type 1) Verbs which require nouns/objective i.e. transitive verbs

e.g. I ate mango.

Here “I” is subjective/Nominative and “mango” is objective.

In Gujarati such verbs are called સકર્મક ક્રિયાપદ(sakarmak kriyApad)

Type 2) Verbs which do not require nouns/objective i.e. intransitive verbs

e.g. I speak.

Here “I” is subjective (Nominative) . The verb speak does not need noun/objective

In Gujarati such verbs are called અકર્મક ક્રિયાપદ(akarmak kriyApad)

For 1st kind of statement verb is formed according to gender of objective

And in 2nd kind of statement verb is formed according to gender of Pronoun/subjective/Nominative


Suffixes are as follows


English Pronoun Gujarati Pronoun Suffix to verb
Masculine Singular Pronouns

I, You, He, This, That

હું  (huM), તું  (tuM), આ/એ/તે  (A/e/te)

પુલ્લિંગી

યો (yo )
Feminine  Singular Pronouns

I, You, She, This, That

હું  (huM), તું  (tuM), આ/એ/તે  (A/e/te)

સ્ત્રિલિંગી

ઈ (I)
Neuter Singular Pronouns. Generally only in third person

It, This, That

આ/એ/તે  (A/e/te)

નપુસકલિંગ

યું (yuM )
Masculine plural pronouns

We, You(plural), They, Those, You(plural)

અમે  (ame), આપણે  (ApaNe),

તમે (tame )

તેઓ/ એ/તે  (teo /e/te)

પુલ્લિંગી

યા (yA)
First & Second person plural for Feminine

We, You(plural) and Polite form

અમે  (ame), આપણે  (ApaNe),

તમે (tame ) , તેઓ(teo)

સ્ત્રિલિંગી

યાં (yAM)
Third plural for Feminine

They/Those/These

તેઓ/આ/એ/તે  (teo /A/e/te)

સ્ત્રિલિંગી

ઈ (I)
Plurals in neuter gender

Generally only in third person
Or Group of different gender perosns

આ/એ/તે  (A/e/te) યાં (yAM)


Note that these suffixes follow ઓ-ઈ-ઉં-આ-ઈ-આં (o-I-uM-A-I-AM ) યો-ઈ-યું-યા-ઈ-યાં ( yo-I-yuM-yA-I-yAM ) rule

Note that suffixes merge with last consonant of the verb stem 
So, 
બોલ(bol) + યો(yo) = બોલ્યો(bolyo )  and Not બોલયો  (bolayo)
ચાલ(chAl ) + યું(yuM ) = ચાલ્યું (chAlyuM ) an NOT ચાલયું ( chAlayuM)

Examples of કર્મક ક્રિયાપદ(akarmak kriyApad) i.e. verb that do not need noun

1) (If boy says) I laughed 

Here કર્તા(kartA) i.e. doer of action is masculine singular. So we use suffix યો (yo ).  હસ(has) + યો(yo) = હસ્યો (hasyo)
(If boy says) I laughed -> હું હસ્યો  (huM hasyo )

2) Similarly,
(If said to one boy) You walked -> તું ચાલ્યો   (tuM chAlyo  )

3) (If girl says) I laughed 
Here કર્તા(kartA) i.e. doer of action is feminine singular. So we use suffix ઈ (I).   હસ(has) +  ઈ (I) = હસી  (hasI)
(If girl says) I laughed ->હું હસી  (huM hasI)

4) Similarly,

(If said to one girl) You walked -> તું ચાલી  (tuM chAlI )

5) They said 

Here કર્તા(kartA) i.e. doer of action is plural. As gender is unknown we will use neuter plural form i.e. યાં (yAM).
બોલ(bol) +  યાં (yAM) = બોલ્યાં(bolyAM)
They said -> તેઓ બોલ્યાં  (teo bolyAM )

6) He(polite form) sat 
Here કર્તા(kartA) i.e. doer of action is polite form of pronoun. So we use suffix યા (yA).   બેસ(bes) +  યા (yA) = બેસ્યા  (besyA)
He(polite) sat -> તેઓ બેસ્યા  (teo besyA)

7) This girl said -> આ છોકરી બોલી ( A ChokarI bolI  )
8) Those girls said -> એ છોકરીઓ બોલી  ( e ChokarIo bolI  )



Listen examples in this lesson at