In previous lesson we have studied symbols in Devanagari script for consonants and vowels. Now lets learn next concept of Marathi Barakhadi. Like in any language, vowels can be added to consonants to create combined sound.

In English we just right letters one after other; and based on the word pronunciation say them together.

e.g.

meat ; bit ; hat. 

Here “ea”,”i”,”a” are pronounced along with preceding consonent.


In Marathi we do not write vowels as it is when they are to be combined with consonant. There are different symbols  for each vowel, which is added to consonant symbol to indicate combined sound


There are twelve main vowels. Hence this chart is called “bArAkhaDI”; where “bArA” means twelve.


1) Adding अ(a) to consonant has no effect. So there is no change in symbol

In this blog it is denoted as small a i.e. “a”


2) Adding आ(A) to consonant is denoted by extra vertical line.

e.g. This vertical line is called काना (kAnA )

क(k) + आ(A) = का (kA)

ब(b) + आ(A) = बा  (bA)

In this blog it is denoted as capital a i.e. “A”


3) Adding इ(i) to consonant is denoted by extra vertical line and a curve BEFORE consonant.

This “vertical line and a curve” is called as पहिली वेलांटी  (pahilI velAMTI ).

क(k) + इ(i) = कि(ki)

ब(b) + इ(i) = बि(bi)

In this blog it is denoted as small i i.e. “i”

 

4) Adding ई(I) to consonant is denoted by extra vertical line and a curve AFTER consonant

This “vertical line and a curve” is called as दुसरी वेलांटी  (dusarI velAMTI ).

क(k) + ई(I) = की(kI)

ब(b) + (I) = बी(bI)

In this blog it is denoted as capital i i.e. “I”

 

5) Adding उ(u) to consonant is denoted by a curve below consonant. Curve is pointing to left

This curve is called पहिला उकार (pahilA ukAr )

क(k) + उ(u) = कु(ku)

ब(b) + उ(u) = बु(bu)

Exception :- for  र(r) curve is added at side रु(ru)

In this blog it is denoted as small u  i.e. “u”

6) Adding ऊ(U) to consonant is denoted by a curve below consonant. Curve is pointing to right.

This curve is called दुसरा उकार (dusarA ukAr )

क(k) + ऊ(U)  = कू(kU)

ब(b) +  ऊ(U) = बू(bU)

Exception :- for  र(r) curve is added at side रू(rU)

In this blog it is denoted as capital u i.e. “U”

7) Adding ए(e) to consonant is denoted by a  slanting line above consonant.

This slanting line is called मात्रा(mAtrA)

क(k) + ए(e)  = के(ke)

ब(b) +  ए(e) = बे(be)

In this blog it is denoted as small e i.e. “e”

8) Adding ऐ(ai) to consonant is denoted by a  TWO slanting lines above consonant.

These slanting lines are called दोन मात्रा(don mAtrA). Where दोन (don) means two.

क(k) + ऐ(ai)  = कै(kai)

ब(b) +  ऐ(ai) = बै(bai)

In this blog it is denoted as “ai”

 

Note for native Hindi speakers :- read the section “Difference in pronunciation of double Matra in Marathi and Hindi” at the end of this lesson.

 

9) Adding ओ(o) to consonant is denoted by a  vertical line after consonant along with one slanting line above consonant.  i.e. one  काना  (kAnA) and one मात्रा(mAtrA) 

 
 
 

क(k) + ओ(o)  = को(ko)

ब(b) +  ओ(o) = बो(bo)

In this blog it is denoted as small o i.e. “o”

 

10) Adding औ(au) to consonant is denoted by a  vertical line after consonant along with TWO slanting lines above consonant.  i.e. one  काना  (kAnA) and two मात्रा(mAtrA) 

 
 
 

क(k) + औ(au)  = कौ(kau)

ब(b) +  औ(au) = बौ(bau)

In this blog it is denoted as “au”


Note for native Hindi speakers :- read the section “Difference in pronunciation of double Matra in Marathi and Hindi” at the end of this blog

 

 

11) Adding अं(aM) to consonant is denoted by a  giving a dot on consonant. 

क(k) + अं(aM)  = कं(kM)

ब(b) +  अं(aM) = बं(bM)

In this blog it is denoted as capital m “M”

Fore more details on pronunciation of anusvar refer

http://kaushiklele-learnmarathi.blogspot.com/2012/05/pronunciation-of-anusvar.html

 

12) Adding अः(aH) to consonant is denoted by a two dots after consonant. 

क(k) + अः(aH)  = कः(kH)

ब(b) +  अः(aH) = बः(bH)

In this blog it is denoted as capital h i.e. “H”

 

Traditional “barakahdi” ends above. But there are few more vowels which can be added with consonant they are as follows :-


13) Adding अ‍ॅ(~a) to consonant is denoted by giving a crescent above consonant.

क(k) + अ‍ॅ(~a)  = कॅ(k~a)

ब(b) +  अ‍ॅ(~a) = बॅ(b~a)

In this blog it is denoted as “~a”

14) Adding ऑ(~0) to consonant is denoted by giving a crescent above consonant  along with vertical line after consonant. 

क(k) + ऑ(~o)  = कॉ(k~o)

ब(b) +  ऑ(~o) = बॉ(b~o)

In this blog it is denoted as “~o”

15) When you want to say a consonant just half it is denoted by giving a slanting line below consonant

क्‌

ब्‌



Listen this lesson online at

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R1ePGpObol0


To learn the pronunciation of Marathi Barakhadi, watch above video.

 

Difference in pronunciation of double Matra in Marathi and Hindi

Pronunciation of double Matra in Hindi is equal to that of crescent in Marathi. 

e.g.

English Word

Written in Hindi as

Written in Marathi as

Stock

स्टौक  (sTauk  )

स्टॉक  (sT~ok  )

Block

ब्लौक  (blauk  )

ब्लॉक  (bl~ok  )

Rock

रौक (rauk )

रॉक (r~ok )

Mat

मैट (maiT )

मॅट (m~aT )

Bat

बैट (baiT )

बॅट (b~aT )

Rat

रैट (raiT )

रॅट (r~aT )


Listen about this difference at

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-_qtbx_tfxs

 

or

https://soundcloud.com/kaushik-lele/double-matra-pronunciation-learn-marathi

 


List of symbols for all consonants with vowel following above rules:- 

You can listen them all at

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ztW4T4R3SDw

 


क का कि की कु कू के कै को कौ कं कः कॅ कॉ क्‌

ख खा खि खी खु खू खे खै खो खौ खं खः खॅ खॉ ख्‌

ग गा गि गी गु गू गे गै गो गौ गं गः गॅ गॉ ग्‌

घ घा घि घी घु घू घे घै घो घौ घं घः घॅ घॉ घ्‌

च चा चि ची चु चू चे चै चो चौ चं चः चॅ चॉ च्‌

छ छा छि छी छु छू छे छै छो छौ छं छः छॅ छॉ छ्‌

ज जा जि जी जु जू जे जै जो जौ जं जः जॅ जॉ ज्‌

झ झा झि झी झु झू झे झै झो झौ झं झः झॅ झॉ झ्‌

ट टा टि टी टु टू टे टै टो टौ टं टः टॅ टॉ ट्‌

ठ ठा ठि ठी ठु ठू ठे ठै ठो ठौ ठं ठः ठॅ ठॉ ठ्‌

ड डा डि डी डु डू डे डै डो डौ डं डः डॅ डॉ ड्‌

ढ ढा ढि ढी ढु ढू ढे ढै ढो ढौ ढं ढः ढॅ ढॉ ढ्‌

ण णा णि णी णु णू णे णै णो णौ णं णः णॅ णॉ ण्‌

त ता ति ती तु तू ते तै तो तौ तं तः तॅ तॉ त्‌

थ था थि थी थु थू थे थै थो थौ थं थः थॅ थॉ थ्‌

द दा दि दी दु दू दे दै दो दौ दं दः दॅ दॉ द्‌

ध धा धि धी धु धू धे धै धो धौ धं धः धॅ धॉ ध्‌

न ना नि नी नु नू ने नै नो नौ नं नः नॅ नॉ न्‌

प पा पि पी पु पू पे पै पो पौ पं पः पॅ पॉ प्‌

फ फा फि फी फु फू फे फै फो फौ फं फः फॅ फॉ फ्‌

ब बा बि बी बु बू बे बै बो बौ बं बः बॅ बॉ ब्‌

भ भा भि भी भु भू भे भै भो भौ भं भः भॅ भॉ भ्‌

म मा मि मी मु मू मे मै मो मौ मं मः मॅ मॉ म्‌

य या यि यी यु यू ये यै यो यौ यं यः यॅ यॉ य्‌

र रा रि री रु रू रे रै रो रौ रं रः रॅ रॉ र्‌

ल ला लि ली लु लू ले लै लो लौ लं लः लॅ लॉ ल्‌

व वा वि वी वु वू वे वै वो वौ वं वः वॅ वॉ व्‌

श शा शि शी शु शू शे शै शो शौ शं शः शॅ शॉ श्‌

ष षा षि षी षु षू षे षै षो षौ षं षः षॅ षॉ ष्‌

स सा सि सी सु सू से सै सो सौ सं सः सॅ सॉ स्‌

ह हा हि ही हु हू हे है हो हौ हं हः हॅ हॉ ह्‌

ळ ळा ळि ळी ळु ळू ळे ळै ळो ळौ ळं ळः ळॅ ळॉ ळ्‌

क्ष क्षा क्षि क्षी क्षु क्षू क्षे क्षै क्षो क्षौ क्षं क्षः क्षॅ क्षॉ क्ष्‌

ज्ञ ज्ञा ज्ञि ज्ञी ज्ञु ज्ञू ज्ञे ज्ञै ज्ञो ज्ञौ ज्ञं ज्ञः ज्ञॅ ज्ञॉ ज्ञ्‌

 

 

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