In previous lessons we have learned about prepositions. 


Learn Prepositions in Marathi
Preposition “TO” in Marathi

Working with nouns – Prepositions in Marathi

Prepositions with Verbs


I observed that some learners face difficulty in selecting one of two prepositions when there is subtle difference in meaning of them. Some pronouns sound similar but they have different meanings. 


Here I am trying to explain some of such prepositions. If you find any other preposition confusing, then let me know by commenting on post or sending me email. I will try to discuss them here. 


Note : This is advanced topic in Marathi learning, so early learners can skip this topic and revisit afterwards, lest you get bogged by the complexity.

 

Similar sounding pronouns

1) मध्ये (madhye) & मधून (madhUn)

मध्ये (madhye) means “inside”.

मधून (madhUn) means “from inside”.


Keep tea-spoon inside drawer and take out the table-spoon from (from inside) the drawer ->

टि-स्पून ड्रॉवर मध्ये ठेव आणि टेबल स्पून ड्रॉवर मधून बाहेर काढ.

(Ti-spUn “drawer” madhye Thev ANi Tebal spUn “drawer” madhUn bAher kADh)


मधला(madhalA) is adjective which means middle or one within. e.g.

Middle stump -> मधला स्टंप (madhalA sTaMp)

Characters from (in) Mahabharat -> महाभारतामधली पात्रे (mahAbhAratAmadhalI pAtre)



2) कडे (kaDe) & कडून (kaDUn)

कडे (kaDe) means “to” or “towards”

कडून (kaDUn) means “from”

So कडून (kaDUn) indicates source of movement & कडे (kaDe) indicates destination.


Throne was passed from king to prince after king’s death ->

राजाच्या मृत्यूनंतर सिंहासन राजाकडून राजपुत्राकडे गेले.

(rAjAchyA mRutyUnaMtar siMhAsan rAjAkaDUn rAjaputrAkaDe gele.)


Sun travels from east towards west ->

सूर्य पूर्वेकडून पश्चिमेकडे प्रवास करतो

(sUrya pUrvekaDUn paSchimekaDe pravAs karato)



Pronouns having similar meaning but subtle difference

1) पासून (pAsUn) & कडून(kaDUn)

Both pronouns mean “from” in English. But कडून(kaDUn) indicates direction of movement where as पासून (pAsUn) indicates starting point. Generally the pronounces are used in pairs as पासून-पर्यंत (pAsUn-paryaMt) & कडून-कडे (kaDUn-kaDe).

पासून-पर्यंत (pAsUn-paryaMt) indicates whole span where as कडून-कडे (kaDUn-kaDe) indicates only movement from one place to other.


Distance between Mumabi & Pune is 149KM ->

मुंबईपासून पुण्यापर्यंतचे अंतर 149 KM आहे 

(muMbaIpAsUn puNyAparyaMtache aMtar 149 KM Ahe)


It takes 3hrs to come to my place from his place ->

त्याच्याकडून माझ्याकडे यायला तीन तास लागतात

(tyAchyAkaDUn mAjhyAkaDe yAyalA  tIn tAs lAgatAt)


Sometimes पासून (pAsUn) & कडून(kaDUn) are used interchangeably but when talking about time, we always use  पासून-पर्यंत (pAsUn-paryaMt)


From yesterday till today ->

कालपासून आजपर्यंत (kAlapAsUn AjaparyMt)


From the beginning of time till end of universe ->

काळाच्या सुरुवातीपासून विश्वाच्या अंतापर्यंत

(kALAchyA suruvAtIpAsUn vishvAchyA aMtAparyaMt)


We don’t say, कालकडून (kAlakaDUn), मागच्या वर्षाकडून (mAgachyA varShAkaDUn) etc.


2) हून (hUn) , तून (tUn), वरून(varUn) & कडून (kaDUn)

All have same meaning as “from”. But usage is different. 


हून (hUn) is generally used when talking about journey from a place like city name, village etc.


He came from London yesterday -> 

तो काल लंडनहून आला (to kAl laMDanahUn AlA)


I will get food grain sacks from my native place

माझ्या गावाहून मला धान्याची पोती मिळतील.

(mAjhyA gAvAhUn malA dhAnyAchI potI miLatIl)


तून (tUn) is generally used to indicate “from inside” the place. Which is similar to मधून(madhUn) which is seen above


I will get agriculture-tax from the village.

मला गावातून शेतसारा मिळेल (malA gAvAtUn shetasArA miLel)

OR

मला गावामधून शेतसारा मिळेल (malA gAvAmadhUn shetasArA miLel)


Call me once you are back from school.

शाळेतून परत आल्यावर मला फोन कर (shALetUn parat AlyAvar malA phona kar)

OR

 

शाळेमधून परत आल्यावर मला फोन कर (shALemadhUn parat AlyAvar malA phona kar)


When the proper name ends with अ(a) sound we prefer using मधून(madhUn) over तून (tUn). e.g.

He got elected from London and I from mumbai

तो लंडनमधून निवडून आला आणि मी मुंबईतून/मुंबईमधून

(to laMDanamadhUn nivaDUn AlA ANi mI muMbaItUn/muMbaImadhUn)

Notice that I did not say, लंडनतून(laMDanatUn) but for Mumabi I could use both ways.


वरून(varUn) is more like “via” in English. e.g.

Train to Delhi will go via your city ->

दिल्लीला जाणारी गाडी तुझ्या शहरावरून जाईल

(dillIlA jANArI mAjhI gADI tujhyA shaharAvarUn jAIl)


So if you travel to some place, then in related sentence we will use वरून(varUn) 


What did you bring from (via) Delhi ?

दिल्लीवरून काय आणलेस ? (dillIvarUn kAy ANales ?)


I brought lot of sweets from Delhi.

मी दिल्लीवरून खूप मिठाई आणली (mI dillIvarUn khUp miThAI ANalI )

 

कडून (kaDUn) is used in other cases 


I did not get any help from him ->

मला त्याच्याकडून काही मदत मिळाली नाही 

(malA tyAchyAkaDUn kAhI madat miLAlI nAhI)


World was astonished by response from India 

भारताकडून मिळालेल्या प्रतिसादामुळे जग चकित झाले 

(bhAratAkaDUn miLAlelyA pratisAdAmuLe jag chakit jhAle)

 

3) ला(lA) & other cases

ला(lA) is used to indicate destination. 

I am going to office -> मी ऑफिसला चाललो आहे (mI ~ophisalA chAlalo Ahe)

She has gone to school ->ती शाळेला गेली आहे (tI shALelA gelI Ahe)

They are travelling to Paris by ship -> ते जहाजाने पॅरिसला प्रवास करत आहेत (te jahAjAne p~arisalA pravAs karat Ahet)


For school we also use शाळेत(shALet).

She has gone to school ->ती शाळेत गेली आहे (tI shALet gelI Ahe)

For home we use only घरी(gharI)

I am going to home -> मी घरी चाललो आहे (mI gharI chAlalo Ahe)

We don’t say मी घरला चाललो आहे (mI gharalA chAlalo Ahe) in standard Marathi. You can find such sentence in some dialects of Marathi.