Exaplanation for “अनुस्वार”  (anusvAr) :-

 

In table for vowels there is row :-

अं

aM

As sound of “um” in number, sound of “um” as in jum

 

This will need more attention to understand its pronunciation.

The dot given on the character is called “अनुस्वार” (anusvAr)

 

The anusvaar (अनुस्वार ) is a nasal sound. The अनुस्वार  itself does not determine the pronunciation of a word. Rather, it is the character that follows the  अनुस्वारthat determines the pronunciation. There are seven possibilities that affect the pronunciation of an अनुस्वार.

 

So though we will use capital ‘M’ to indicate अनुस्वार, you may need to pronounce it differently depending on case.


Listen the rules for pronunciation of anusvaar (अनुस्वार ) at

or

 

 

Rule 1) If the nasal dot is followed by the क (k) , ख (kh) , ग (g) , घ (gh) the nasal dot will be pronounced as ङ ( G)

e.g. ‘n’ in “sing” 

 

Examples :-

 

English word

Synonym in Marathi

Transliteration in roman scipt.  “अनुस्वार” (anusvAr) marked as ‘M’

Simpler transliteration to explain  pronunciation of “अनुस्वार” (anusvAr)

Digit

अंक  

aMk

ank

Fan

पंखा

paMkhA

pankhA

Comb

कंगवा

kaMgava

kangava

Bath

आंघोळ

AMghoL

Anghol

 

 

Rule 2) If the nasal dot is followed by characters च (ch) , छ (Ch), ज (j) , झ (jh) the dot is pronounced as ञ (nY)

e.g ‘n’ in English word “munch”

 

English word

Synonym in Marathi

Transliteration in roman scipt.  “अनुस्वार” (anusvAr) marked as ‘M’

Simpler transliteration to explain  pronunciation of “अनुस्वार” (anusvAr)

Set

संच

saMch

sanch

 

कंछ

kaMCh

kanCh

Thread for kite

मांजा

 

mAMjA

mAnjA

 

सांझ

sAMjh

sanjh

 

 

Rule 3) If the nasal dot is followed by characters ट (T), ठ (Th), ड (D) ढ (Dh) ण ( N)  the dot is pronounced as ण ( N)

 

English word

Synonym in Marathi

Transliteration in roman scipt.  “अनुस्वार” (anusvAr) marked as ‘M’

Simpler transliteration to explain  pronunciation of “अनुस्वार” (anusvAr)

Bore

कंटाळा

kaMTALA

kaNtala

Dry ginger

सुंठ

suMTh

suNTh

pot

भांडे

bhAMDe

bhANDe

Eunuch

षंढ

ShaMDh

ShaNDh

 

Rule 4) If the nasal dot is followed by characters  (t) n   (th )  (d)  (dh)  (n)

the dot is pronounced as  (n)

English word

Synonym in Marathi

Transliteration in roman scipt.  “अनुस्वार” (anusvAr) marked as ‘M’

Simpler transliteration to explain  pronunciation of “अनुस्वार” (anusvAr)

saint

संत

saMt

sant

gradual

संथ

saMth

santh

close

बंद

baMd

band

joint

सांधा

sAMdhA

sAndhA

To them 

त्यांना

tyAMnA

tyAnnA

 

Rule 5) If the nasal dot is followed by characters प (p),फ (ph ),ब (b ),भ (bh ),म (m)

the dot is pronounced as म (m)

 

English word

Synonym in Marathi

Transliteration in roman scipt.  “अनुस्वार” (anusvAr) marked as ‘M’

Simpler transliteration to explain  pronunciation of “अनुस्वार” (anusvAr)

pump

पंप

paMp

pamp

 

अंफ

aMph

amph

mango

आंबा

AMbA

AmbA

start

आरंभ

AraMbh

Arambh

Approval

संमती

saMmatI

sammatI

 

 

Rule 6) If the nasal dot is followed by characters  (y) (r) (l) (v) (sh) (Sh) (s) (h) (L) क्ष(kSh) ज्ञ (dny) the dot is pronounced as   अं (aM)

English word

Synonym in Marathi

Transliteration in roman scipt.  “अनुस्वार” (anusvAr) marked as ‘M’

Simpler transliteration to explain  pronunciation of “अनुस्वार” (anusvAr)

Part  

अंश

aMsh

amsh

Bracket

कंस

kaMs

kans

Term

संज्ञा

saMdnyA

saMdnyA

patience

संयम

saMyam

sanyam

Dialogue  

संवाद

saMvAd

samvAd

 

 Rule 7) If the nasal dot is followed by the space character the dot is pronounced as half म i.e. म्‌

 Example: एवं = एवम्‌ (evam)

 

Rule 8) Use of अनुस्वार to indicate change in pronunciation in colloquial language.

 

In day-to-day communication, words ending with vowel  (e) are said in little differently.  Instead of pronouncing  (e), the consonant is pronounced elongated.

And this change is pronunciation is indicated by अनुस्वार; though there is no nasal sound.

 

e.g. “Trees” is English is झाडे (jhADe) in Marathi. But in day-to-day communication it can be said as  झाडं (jhADM). Where ending (d) is pronounce elongated.

Similarly “Leaves” in English is पाने(pAne). It can also be said as  पानं (pAnM).

 

It may sound contrary to rule 7 discussed above.  But note that, rule 7 is present in Marathi because of influence of Sanskrit language. There is hardly any Marathi word having अनुस्वार (anusvaar) on ending vowel. 

So unless you know that you are quoting something from Sanskrit,you need not apply rule 7. Apply rule 8 i.e. say the ending vowel elongated.

 

Rule 8 is also applicable when pair of word is present.

e.g.  words कसे(kase) and तरी (tarI) are used together to make combined word कसेतरी (kasetarI) . Now कसे(kase) can be said as कसं (kasa). So combined word can also be said as कसंतरी (kasaMtarI)

So you will NOT apply rule 4 to say it कसन्तरी (kasantarI)

 

Similarly झाडेबिडे(jhADebiDe) can be pronounced as झाडंबिडं  (jhADMbiDM ).

So you will NOT apply rule 3 & 7 to say it झाडम्बिडम्‌ (jhADambiDam)

 

So you should know if it is a combined word or a single word to pronounce it correctly.

 

Rule of thumb is,

if word ends with  तर (tar), तरी (tarI), ही (hI) then it is a combined word. e.g. कसंतरी (kasaMtarI ) कुठंही (kuThMhI )खरंतर (kharaMtar)

If word is pair of two rhyming words then it is combined word.

 

झाडंबिडं (jhADMbiDM),हलकंफुलकं (halakaMphulakaM), साधंबिधं (sAdhaMbidhaM)

If word is pair of opposite words then it is combined word

खरं-खोटं(kharaM-khoTM, भलं-बुरं(kharaM-khoTM, bhalM-buraM)


Listen Rule number 8 at

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y6Ee9D2_d6s

 

 

Rule 9) अनुस्वार  in सामान्यरूप form of plural of noun. 

In Marathi, form of noun changes before adding any preposition to it. This concept is thoroughly discussed in lesson

http://kaushiklele-learnmarathi.blogspot.com/2012/05/working-with-nouns-prepositions.html

 

In सामान्यरूप form of plural of noun whenever there is अनुस्वार at end it is  pronounced as light half “न(n)” irrespective of following consonant.

e.g


Word :- संप(saMp)

सामान्यरूप form of plural of word :- संपां(saMpAM)

Full word examples संपांपासून (saMpAMpAsUn ).

This word is actually pronounced as सम्पान्पासून (sampAnpaasUn)

So here first anusvar (in सं) is pronounced as half “म”(m) because next consonant is “प(p)” as in Rule 5. 

But second anusvar (in पां )is pronounced as half न(n)” even if next consonant is again प(p)” as in Rule 9.


Word :- माठ(mATh

सामान्यरूप form of plural of word :- माठां(mAThAM)

So words like माठांकरिता(mAThAMkaritA), माठांपासून(mAThAMpAsUn)

are actually pronounced as माठान्करिता (mAThAnkaritA), माठान्पासून (mAThAnpAsUn)


Other example;

word :- पान(pAn) 

सामान्यरूप form of plural of word :- पानां(pAnAM)

So words like पानांकरिता (pAnAMkaritA ), पानांपासून(pAnAMpAsUn)

are pronounced as पानान्करिता  (pAnAnkaritA ), पानान्पासून(pAnAnpAsUn)


Listen Rule 9 at

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y-6IGs3yHLQ



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