In English adverbs are generally formed by appending “ly” to the adjective word.
e.g. beautifully, gracefully, sadly, happily etc.
In Marathi, adverbs are created in different ways.
Below I have discussed different ways in which adverbs are formed, but there is no specific rule which dictates which way to use when.
It is just custom that dictates the creation of adverbs
So as you will read more and more Marathi you will understand different adverbs.
Many adverbs are independent words in Marathi
carefully: काळजीपूर्वक ( kALajIpUrvak )
Slowly: हळूहळू ( haLUhaLU )
Fast: जोरात (jorAt )
quickly: पटकन (paTakan )
If noun of the adjective ends पणा(paNA) it is appended with ए(e) to create adverb
1)”Quietly” is an adverb. The corresponding noun is “quietness” which is “शांतपणा” (shAMtapaNA).
So adverb becomes “शांतपणा” (shAMtapaNA) + ए(e) -> शांतपणे ( shAMtapaNe )
2) “sordidly” is adverb. Corresponding noun is “sordidness” which is “हलकटपणा” (halakaTapaNA).
So adverb becomes “हलकटपणा” (halakaTapaNA) + ए(e) -> हलकटपणे( halakaTapaNe)
3) correctly: अचूकपणे( achUkapaNe)
4) easily: सहजपणे / सहजतेने ( sahajapaNe / sahajatene )
5) independently: स्वतंत्रपणे ( svataMtrapaNe )
सामान्यरूप (sAmAnyarUp ) of noun of the adjective is is appended with ने(ne)
1) “Quietly” is an adverb. The corresponding noun is “quietness” which is “शांतपणा” (shAMtapaNA).
So adverb becomes “शांतपणा” (shAMtapaNA) + ने(ne) -> शांतपणाने (shAMtapaNAne )
2) For adverb “patiently” the noun “patience” सबूरी (sabUrI)
So adverb become सबूरी (sabUrI) +ने(ne) -> सबूरीने ( sabUrIne )
3) eagerly: उत्सुकतेने (utsukatene )
4) easily: सहजतेने ( sahajatene )
5) loudly: मोठ्याने ( moThyAne )
In English word indicating time or place are also considered as adverbs. Those adverbs are also independent words in Marathi.
We have discussed such words in previous sections as “time-related words”, “place related words”. So though grammatically they fall under the category of “adverbs” we have studied them independently for ease of learning.
Note: In Marathi adverbs come before verb
I told him clearly -> मी त्याला स्पष्टपणे सांगितले (mI tyAlA spaShTapaNe sAMgitale )
He watched last over of match eagerly -> त्याने सामन्याची शेवटची ओव्हर अधिरतेने बघितली (tyAne sAmanyAchI shevaTachI ovhar adhiratene baghitalI )
She can finish this task easily -> ती हे काम सहजपणे संपवू शकते ( tI he kAm sahajapaNe saMpavU shakate )