Suppose you want help and you want to get the attention of a person in front of you. In English, you may say “Hello!”, “Hey”, “Friend” etc. Or in general while talking you may say, “Hey friend, do you know? ”
These words “Hello!”, “Hey” etc. in what I mean by the title “Calling or Addressing” someone.
The way you call someone who is of your age or you are friendly with will differ from calling an elder.
In Marathi “अरे”/”अगं” (are/agaM) is used for casual or friendly address. “अहो” (aho) is used for calling with respect.
“अरे”(are) is for calling boy. “अगं” (agaM) is for calling girl.
Lets see detailed examples
A young boy or elder gentleman may call another young/small boy as
Hey friend:- अरे मित्रा ( are mitrA )
But do NOT call a girl “अगं मैत्रिणी” (agaM maitriNI ) which be literally translated as “Hey Girlfriend” !! So be aware. The difference between Indian and Western culture matters here.
So you may call a girl formally
Hey Sister:- अहो ताई (aho tAI )
But a boy/girl may call another elder girl whom they know as
Hey Sister:- अगं ताई (agaM tAI )
See the difference. Calling someone with “अहो” indicates respect. Where “अरे” or “अगं” will be used casually.
A young boy may call another young boy of his age as
Hey brother:- अरे दादा (are dAdA )
An elder person (Gent./Lady) may call a young or small child
Hey lad/boy :- अरे मुला / बाळा ( are mulA / bALA )
When calling an unknown elder gentleman, we generally say
Uncle !! :- अहो काका ( aho kAkA )
When calling an unknown elder lady, we generally say
Aunty !! :- अहो काकू / अहो मावशी ( aho kAkU / aho mAvashI )
Sometimes ladies do not like getting called as काकू/मावशी as it makes them feel aged. So nowadays people prefer to call an unknown girl or lady as “Madam” as in English.
Hello Madam:- अहो Madam (aho Madam )
Similarly supporting staff in an organization calls male employees as “Sir” like in English
Hello Sir:- अहो Sir !! (aho Sir )
Using "अरे"/"अगं"/"अहो" along with other words
From the words “अरे”/”अगं”/”अहो” (are/agaM/ aho) the ending “रे”/”गं”/”हो” (re/gaM/ ho) are added with other words to give them special effects.
E.g. adding it to काय(kAy) will be कायरे/कायगं/कायहो (kAyare /kAyagaM /kAyaho)
Many times people start the conversation with a familiar person using these words.
Asking a boy. “Hey! How are you” -> कायरे? कसा आहेस? ( kAyare ? kasA Ahes ? )
Asking a girl. “Hey! How are you” -> कायगं? कशी आहेस? (kAyagaM ? kashI Ahes ?)
Asking a gentleman. “Hello! How are you” -> कायहो? कसे आहात? (kAyaho ? kase AhAt ?)
Instead of just saying “कसा आहेस ?“ saying “कायरे? कसा आहेस ?” shows that you have very close relation/contact with that person.
Similarly, in questions ending with का(kA) these can be seen.
Asking a boy “Will you be coming” -> तू येणारेस का? (tU yeNAres kA ?)
it can also be said as तू येणारेस कारे? (tU yeNAres kAre ?)
To a girl, it can be तू येणारेस कागं? (tU yeNAres kAgaM ? )
It means the same as original questions.
So do not confuse if someone adds “रे”/”गं”/”हो” (re/gaM/ ho) To WH-question words like काय, कधी, केव्हा, कुठे, कसा (kAy, kadhI, kevhA, kuThe, kasA) and make them:-
कायहो, कधीहो, केव्हाहो, कुठेहो, कसाहो (kAyaho, kadhIho, kevhAho, kuTheho, kasAho )
कायरे, कधीरे, केव्हारे, कुठेरे, कसारे (kAyare, kadhIre, kevhAre, kuThere, kasAre)
कायगं, कधीगं, केव्हागं, कुठेगं, कसागं (kAyagaM, kadhIgaM, kevhAgaM, kuThegaM, kasAgaM )
They are the same as the original words.
You tell your friend “Boss has come” -> साहेब आले (sAheb Ale).
Suppose you are doing time-pass in office and you see your boss coming then you will alert your friend “Hey, Boss has come”. In Marathi, you will say “साहेब आलेरे” (sAheb Alere )
Adding “रे” (re) to the verb “आले” (Ale) gave this special effect of alerting/fetching attention 🙂
Similarly, it can be appended to the verb in an imperative statement
(To boy) Come -> ये (ye) -> येरे (yere)
(To Girl) Come -> ये (ye) -> येगं (yegaM)
(To elder man)Come -> या (yA) -> याहो (yAho)
Depending on your tone it will sound urging/commanding/pleading.
Thus adding these suffixes does not change the meaning but they just enunciate the fact or feeling.
Only remember that:-
For a boy with the casual address, you can append “रे” (re)
For a girl with the casual address, you can append “गं” (gaM)
For an unknown person or with respect you can append “हो” (ho)
As you listen/read more Marathi you will understand these subtle differences clearly.
suffixing ना(nA)/नं(naM) and हं (haM)
Similar to above-adding ना(nA)/नं(naM) to the verb in imperative statement indicates that you are pleading the person to take that action who is actually refusing to do it
Person A:- Kaushik Please sing for me -> कौशिक एक गाणं गा ( Kaushik ek gANM gA )
Kaushik:- No no. -> नाही नाही ( nAhI nAhI )
Person A:- Why no. Please sing. -> का नको गाना/गानं ( kA nako gAnA/gAnaM )
Adding हं (haM) which will sound like “Hmm” in English also indicates you are pleading positively to that person. If you are inviting that person to some function or event many times it is used.
Come to my marriage. Do Come:- माझ्या लग्नाला ये. येहं ( mAjhyA lagnAlA ye. yehaM )
Talk to him. Do talk:- त्याच्याशी बोला. बोलाहं ( tyAchyAshI bolA. bolAhaM )