In English, there are three degrees of comparison viz. positive, comparative and superlative.
Generally, we prefix “more” and “most” to an adjective for the comparative and superlative degrees.
Sometimes there are different words to indicate each degree e.g. good-better-best
Bad-worse-worst, tall- taller-tallest, etc.

In Gujarati, we do not have this second way of comparison. i.e. adjectives do not change as per degree. Only words indicating degree are prefixed.

Bitter:- કડવો (kaDavo )
More bitter:- વધુ કડવો (vadhu kaDavo )
Most bitter:- સૌથી કડવો /સૌથી વધુ કડવો(sauthI kaDavo / sauthI vadhu kaDavo )

tall:- ઊંચો (UMcho)
taller:- વધુ ઊંચો (vadhu UMcho )
tallest:- સૌથી ઊંચો /સૌથી વધુ ઊંચો (sauthI UMcho/ sauthI vadhu UMcho)

Good:- સારું (sAruM)
better:- વધુ સારું (vadhu sAruM)
best:- સૌથી સારું /સૌથી વધુ સારું (sauthI sAruM/ sauthI vadhu sAruM)

In English, we use the word “than” while comparison, similarly in Gujarati we use word કરતાં (karatAM). When using this word with pronoun you can consider it as preposition ના કરતાં (nA karatAM ), so that it will be appended to form of the pronoun.

Refer table of forms of pronouns. Refer column named “For pronoun with
Learn Prepositions in Gujarati Language

Examples will make it clear.

Sentence formation is in second/comparative degree is:-

Noun of comparison
Other object with preposition
"ના કરતાં"(nA karatAM)
વધુ(vadhu)adjectiveforms of હોવું(hovuM) as per
subject and tense
એ (e)મારા કરતાં (mArA karatAM)વધુ(vadhu)ઊંચો(UMcho)છે(Che)

Sometimes while speaking વધુ can be omitted.
When you are indicating something lesser, shorter, etc.વધુ is omitted.

Let us take a full example sentence
He is taller than me:- એ મારા કરતાં વધુ ઊંચો છે (e mArA karatAM vadhu UMcho Che)
I am shorter than you:- હું તારા કરતાં ઠિંગણો છું (huM tArA karatAM ThiMgaNo ChuM)
They were happier than now:- તેઓ અત્યાર કરતાં વધુ ખુશ હતાં(teo atyAr karatAM vadhu khush hatAM)
Ram is cleverer than Kaushik -> રામ કૌશિક કરતાં વધુ હોશિયાર છે (rAm kaushik karatAM vadhu hoshiyAr Che)
Kaushik is cleverer than Ram -> કૌશિક રામ કરતાં વધુ હોશિયાર છે (rAm kaushik karatAM vadhu hoshiyAr Che)

Sentence formation in superlative degree :

Noun of comparison
સૌથી (sauthI) /
સૌથી વધુ (sauthI vadhu)
adjectiveforms of હોવું(hovuM)as per
subject and tense
એ (e)સૌથી (sauthI) /
સૌથી વધુ (sauthI vadhu)

Generally while speaking વધુ can be omitted.
When you are indicating something least, the shortest, etc.વધુ is omitted.

He is best:- એ સૌથી સારો છે (e sauthI sAro Che)
Everest is the tallest peak:- એવરેસ્ટ શિખર સૌથી વધુ ઉંચો છે(evaresT shikhar sauthI vadhu uMcho Che)
She was the youngest player:- એ સૌથી નાની ખેલાડી હતી (e sauthI nAnI khelADI hatI)
Your voice is loudest of all:- તારો આવાજ સૌથી વધુ મોટો છે (tAro AvAj sauthI vadhu moTo Che)

Comparison can be done other way

e.g. “She is less tall than me”, “It is less effective than Ayurvedic medicine” etc.
“Less” in Gujarati ઓછો(oCho).
Sentence structure is the same as seen above, only instead of વધુ(vadhu) we will use form of ઓછો(oCho).

As it is adjective ending with ઓ(o), it changes are per gender a multiplicity as seen in
Adjectives in Gujarati
So forms are ઓછો-ઓછી-ઓછું-ઓછા-ઓછી-ઓછાં (oCho-oChI-oChuM-oChA-oChI-oChAM). Form will be decided based on gender and multiplicity of person/object being compared.

She is less tall than me -> એ મારા કરતાં ઓછી ઉંચી છે (e mArA karatAM oChI uMchI Che )
He is less tall than me -> એ મારા કરતાં ઓછો ઉંચો છે (e mArA karatAM oChI uMchI Che )

This medicine is less effective that XYZ ->
આ ઓસડ XYZ કરતાં ઓછું અસરકારક છે (A osaD XYZ karatAM oChuM asarakArak Che )
આ દવા XYZ કરતાં ઓછી અસરકારક છે (A davA XYZ karatAM oChI asarakArak Che )

ઓસડ(osaD) is neuter-singular where as દવા(davA) is feminine singular.

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