Friends, for learning past tense you need to put extra attention. Because Past tense has a comparatively different structure than other Tense.Also, there are multiple exceptions to common rules. So be more attentive.

Let us start.
In Simple Present, Continuous Present, Simple Future, and Continuous future tense; the verb is formed depending on the Nominative i.e. doer of the action. But in the past tense, there is some difference.

In Simple past tense there 2 types of statements.

Type 1) Verbs which has nouns/objective
e.g. I ate mango.
Here I is subjective/Nominative and mango is objective.

Type 2) Verbs which do not have nouns/objective
e.g. I speak.
Here I is subjective (Nominative). The verb speak doe not need noun/objective

For 1st kind of statement, the verb is formed according to the gender of the objective. And in 2nd kind of statement verb is formed according to the gender of Pronoun/subjective/Nominative

Sentence without Objective is formed as Pronoun Verb+Suffix for Simple Past Tense

e.g. For “We” the suffix in Simple Past tense is लो ( lo )
So for verb चाल(chAl) the Past tense will be : चाल(chAl) + लो ( lo )= चाललो (chAlalo)
The full sentence
we walked –> आम्ही (AmhI) चाल(chAl) + लो ( lo ) –> आम्ही चाललो (AmhI chAlalo)

Below table lists all the suffixes

Pronoun in English
Pronoun in Marathi
Suffix for Simple Past Tense
Transliteration
I (male)
मी
लो
lo
I (female)
मी
ले
le
we
आम्ही
लो
lo
we ( listener including)
आपण
लो
lo
You (singular male)
तू
लास
lAs
You (singular female)
तू
लीस
lIs
You (plural)
तुम्ही
लात
lAt
He / That (m.) / This (m.)
तो / तो / हा
ला
lA
She / That (f.)/ This (f.)
ती / ती / ही
ली
lI
It / That(n.) / This (n.)
ते / ते / हे
ले
le
They (Plural of He) /Those (m.) /These (m.)ते / ते / हे
ले
le
They (Plural of She) / Those (f.) / These (f.)
त्या / त्या / ह्या
ल्या
lyA
They (Plural of it) / Those (n.) / These (n.)
ती / ती / ही
ली
lI

Examples

I (male) spoke. मी बोललो(mI bolalo)
I (female) danced. मी नाचले(mI nAchale)
We smiled. आम्ही / आपण हसलो(AmhI / ApaN hasalo)
You (male) sat. तू बसलास(tU basalAs)
You (female) sat. तू बसलीस(tU basalIs)
You (Plural) walked तुम्ही चाललात(tumhI chAlalAt)
He moved. तो हलला (to halalA )
She shouted. ती ओरडली (tI oraDalI )
It turned.ते वळले (te vaLale )
They(plural of he) met.ते भेटले (te bheTale )
They(plural of she) metत्या भेटल्या (tyA bheTalyA )
They(plural of it) metती भेटली (tI bheTalI )

Exceptions

Please pay more attention towards the verbs बघ (bagh ) , सांग ( sAMg ), कर (kar ) , खा (khA ) etc.
In the past tense verb itself is changed first. And suffixes are added to these changed verbs. e.g as per above rules “He saw movie” will be “त्याने मूव्ही बघला ” ( tyAne mUvhI baghalA ). But in simple past tense the verb”बघ” changes to “बघित”. so instead of बघला we say बघितला ( baghitalA ). Similarly other changes.

As we will see ahead, the Perfect tenses depend on the sentence creation in the simple past tense. So these forms only used in perfect tenses also.

Go through the below table :

Verb in english
Verb in MarathiForms in simple past tense
as per above rule.
But DO NOT USE these forms
Changed verb
Forms in simple past tense as per rule.
But USE these forms
See
बघ
बघला / बघली /बघले बघित
बघितला / बघितली /बघितले
(baghitalA / baghitalI /baghitale )
Tell
सांग
सांगला / सांगली / सांगले
सांगित
सांगितला सांगितली सांगितले
( sAMgitalA / sAMgitalI / sAMgitale )
Do
कर
करला /करली / करले
के
केला / केली / केले
( kelA / kelI / kele )
Eatखा
खाला / खाली /खाले
खाल्
खाल्ला / खाल्ली / खाल्ले
( khAllA / khAllI / khAlle )
Ask for
माग
मागला / मागली / मागले
मागित
मागितला / मागितली / मागितले
(mAgitalA mAgitalI mAgitale )
Drink
पी
पीला / पीली / पीले
प्याय
प्यायला / प्यायली / प्यायले
(pyAyalA / pyAyalI pyAyale )
Come
ये
येला / येली / येले
etc.

आला / आली / आले
( AlA / AlI / Ale )
etc.
Sing
गा
गाला / गाली / गाले
etc.
गाय
गायला / गायली / गायले
( gayalA / gayalI / gaya le )
etc.

A separate lesson is added to discuss these exceptions as:
http://kaushiklele-learnmarathi.blogspot.com/2013/04/learn-marathi-exceptional-verbs-changing-past-tense.html

Listen examples online